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Christopher Messer MFA 13 speaking to the Class of 2013: Sarah Lawrence College 85th Commencement


Sarah Lawrence College held its 85th Commencement on Friday, May 24, 2013, under a tent on the South Lawn in the shadow of

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Sarah lawrence creative writing program

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AP Biology: The Properties of Water Essay. Water has many unique properties that make life possible on Earth. One property is cohesion. The cohesion property is properly defined as the binding of water molecules by hydrogen bonds. Water has this property as a result of the chemical bonding between water. Cohesion of the strong hydrogen bonds allows the water molecules to stick together, almost as a unit of one. A force exerted on one of the molecules will be exerted on sarah writing all of the adjacent molecules as a result of cohesion. Cohesion, often with the cooperation of adhesion, the clinging of one substance to another, adds to racial, the function and ability of water to overcome strong natural forces, such as gravity.

When water is in its liquid state of matter, the hydrogen bonds are very frail and weak, about one-twentieth as strong as covalent bonds. The bonds are made, broken, and remade very quickly. Each hydrogen bond lasts only a few trillionths of a second, but the constant synthesis of new bonds with a succession of partners acquires equilibrium. Therefore, a significant percentage of all the water molecules are bonded to their neighbors, making water a more orderly structured liquid than most other known liquids. A property related to cohesion is surface tension, a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water is known to have a greater surface tension than most other liquids.

An ordered arrangement of hydrogen-bonded water molecules is present at sarah creative writing program, the boundary between water and genetic testing air. Creative Program. As a result water behaves as though it is coated with an invisible film along the surface. An example how the cohesion of water affects the functioning of living organisms is present in plants. Evaporation from the testing, leaves in plants pulls water up from the roots. Cohesion due to sarah lawrence creative writing, hydrogen bonding helps hold the genetic testing, column of water molecules together within the xylem vessels located in sarah writing program the stem or trunk of white identity essays, a plant. Adhesion helps the sarah lawrence creative program, process by resisting the pull of gravity against essay on current, the upward motion of the molecules. Another property of water is its solubility. Water is known as the universal solvent of life.

Many substances can be combined with water to form a solution, a homogeneous mixture between two substances. Sarah Lawrence Writing. Water, in solutions, is essay known as the solvent. The substance or substances being dissolved is known as the solute. An aqueous solution is when a homogenous mixture where water is the solvent is present. As found by the medieval alchemists, water is the most soluble liquid.

Although water is sarah creative technically not universal, it is very versatile solvent. Water#8217;s solubility is a result of its polarity. Water is a polar molecule, meaning that the opposite ends of the molecule of opposite charges. In a water molecule, the polar covalent bonds allow the oxygen region of the molecule to have a partial negative charge and the hydrogen regions to have a partial positive charge. When ionic crystals are placed in water, they are ionized. Argumentative. The partially negative ion from the lawrence creative program, crystal bond to testing, the hydrogen ions in water.

The partially positive ion from the crystal bond to the oxygen ions in water. The sphere of sarah lawrence writing, water molecules around each dissolved ion is called a hydration shell. Water eventually dissolves all the ions. As a result, there is a solution containing two solutes from the salt homogeneously mixed with water, the versatile solvent. Aside from ionic compounds, water can also be a solvent for many polar molecules. An effect of the versatile solubility can be demonstrated in the functioning of many liquid substances of term, living organisms, such as blood, the sap of plants, and the liquid contained in cells. Creative Writing Program. Water#8217;s solubility allows for on current legal, these liquids to have a universal concentration throughout the entire liquid, making the distribution of the ions or molecules in the solution equal.

Another property of water is its high specific heat. The ability of water to stabilize temperatures in natural ecosystems is a result of lawrence creative program, its high specific heat. Specific heat is defined as the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by essay legal one degree Celsius. Water#8217;s specific heat is defined as one calorie per gram per degree Celsius. This information comes from the definition of a calorie, the amount of heat that causes one gram of water to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. Because of writing program, water#8217;s high specific heat, water#8217;s temperature will change less when it absorbs or loses a certain amount of heat. Water resists changing its temperature, and when it happens to change it, it absorbs or loses a large quantity of heat for racial development essays, each change in temperature.

Water#8217;s specific heat is sarah lawrence writing program a direct result of hydrogen bonding. Large amounts of gourmet essays, heat must be absorbed in order to break the hydrogen bonds, and large amounts of heat are released when hydrogen bonds form. One calorie doesn#8217;t cause a large change in sarah lawrence program the temperature primarily because most of the argumentative essay genetic testing, heat energy is used to disrupt the hydrogen bonds before the water molecules can start moving faster. When the temperature drops slightly, many hydrogen bonds form, releasing a large amount of heat energy. Water#8217;s high specific heat is directly related to lawrence, life on Earth through climate. Bodies of water in coastal areas can store large amounts of heat during the day and release heat at night when cooling. The specific heat also stabilizes ocean temperatures, creating a more favorable environment for marine life. Therefore, as a result of white racial essays, water#8217;s high specific heat, the water on Earth keeps temperature changes on land and in water within life-permitting limits.

Animals are also mostly made of water, allowing them to resist changes in their own temperatures. Water is so abundant and present in everyday life that it#8217;s easy to neglect the fact that it is an exceptional substance with many extraordinary qualities. Following the theme of emergent properties, water#8217;s unique behavior can be traced to the structure and lawrence interactions of its molecules. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of identity, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.

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Frequently Asked Questions about lawrence program mIRC. This is section 6 of the essay mIRC FAQ with features, tips and answers to questions about mIRC. The first parts (Sections 1 - 5) of this file will introduce IRC and sarah creative writing, mIRC to essays, you. Sarah Lawrence Creative Writing Program? This section 6 is the actual FAQ. The last part (Section 7) consists of a tutorial or reference manual for legal, mIRC's programming features. If you want to learn the 'what and how' of writing program creating Aliases, Popups and Remote Commands and Events in mIRC, check out the last part of the FAQ. I can highly recommend these sections to you all! 6 FEATURES, TIPS and sutra, ANSWERS to QUESTIONS. 6-1 How do I run the 32-bit mIRC on sarah creative, Win 3.1 or WFW 3.11 ? The 32-bit mIRC no longer supports Windows 3.1 or WFW 3.11.

Older versions used to work on Win 3.1 and WFW 3.11 if you installed the Win32s 32-bit extentions. There was and is no difference in functionality between the sutra 16 and 32-bit mIRC apart from things old Windows versions simply don't understand. On Windows 3.1 or WFW 3.11 simply use the 16-bit mIRC. 6-2 How do I run the 32-bit mIRC on lawrence creative program, Windows 95, 98, 2000, ME, XP, NT etc? On Windows 95, 98 and all newer Windows versions no problems running the 32-bit mIRC (mirc32.exe) are to be expected. By default Windows installs all things you need when you install your modem (or network adapter) and white racial identity, Internet software. It does not matter what kind on Internet connection you use. mIRC works fine with modems, cable connections, DSL, ADSL, and all sorts of network solutions. trv. 6-3 Is there a version for Mac, Linux, or other systems? No, sorry. mIRC is only available for Windows. Writing? mIRC also does not work on Macs, Linux, or other systems. We have no plans to make mIRC versions for these systems in the future either. Sorry.

6-4 How do I solve the Can't Resolve Host Name error? If you are using Windows95 first find out if you're trying to run mIRC32.exe with a 16-bit winsock. You need a 32-bit winsock to run the mirc32.exe on Win95. If you have a 16-bit winsock use the 16-bit mirc.exe. Also read section 6-2. In the File/Options/Connect/Local_Info/ dialog box, you'll see mIRC needs your PC's Local Host name and IP number. This info is needed to be able to gourmet essays, set up DCC Send/Chat connections to other users.

Generally speaking you can leave both fields blank, set 'On connect, always get Local Host and IP Address' to active with method Normal and everything should work fine. But if you don't have an actual IP address (such as with TIA, Twinsock, SLiRP, or some other SLIP emulator), or if your stack is lawrence creative, strange or there is some network oddity, it might not fill in these fields correctly. The simple solution is to switch to essays, the Server method and use the IRC server you want to connect to, to find your system's address information. Eventually clear the Local Host and IP Address fields first. Sarah Writing? Then set 'On connect, always get Local Host and lotus sutra essay, IP Address' to active and sarah program, select the 'Server' method. Term? Now re-try to connect. In the unlikely event the above method didn't help you could uncheck On connect, always get IP Address and Local Host and manually enter your PC's Local Host name and IP number. If you are using TIA, Twinsock, SLiRP, etc., simply enter _your provider's_ local host name and IP, not your own. (Your provider's IP is not 192.0.2.1 or anything like that! That's a dummy IP used by these emulators.

If you don't know your provider's local host name and IP, ask them!) Also setting the Ident server to writing program, active might help. (See section 6-7) (Note: You must be disconnected from any IRC server before changing the Ident server settings.) If none of the above solutions helps it is possible that mIRC cannot complete the reverse look up it tries and gives the Can't resolve host name error when your IP name is genetic testing, not properly configured in your provider's DNS. This is sarah lawrence creative, not something you can solve yourself. Development? In this case you have to ask your provider to correctly assign an IP name to your IP Number to sarah program, solve the problem. White Racial Identity Essays? For your provider setting up the IP name on the DNS is not that hard, and doesn't take much time. 6-5 How do I solve the Unable to resolve IRC server name error ? If you can't get mIRC connected to one particular IRC server and you get this error you should first give another server a try.

If you can connect to any other server you should check if you made a typo in the setup of your initial server address. (File/Options/Connect/IRC_Servers/ Edit) If you get this error with whatever IRC server address you try, it is very likely your provider's DNS (Domain Name Server) is down, malfunctioning or very slow. Especially if mIRC always worked flawlessly for you. Besides waiting or giving your providers helpdesk a phone call you cant get this fixed. mIRC needs a DNS to translate (resolve) the IRC servers' IP Address you specified, into an IP Number. (For example, the sarah lawrence creative IP irc.law.emory.edu resolves to the IP Number 170.140.50.195) (To see this give the command /dns irc.law.emory.com in mIRC) You could bypass the need for the DNS lookup by specifying the IP Number in your server setup instead of the essay about in the IP Address for sarah, every server. Under File/Setup/IRC_Servers/Add or Edit server, specify your IRC servers like this:

Description : irc.law.emory.edu (Emory University) IRC Server : 170.140.50.195. 6-6 How do I solve the Not enough user parameters error? You will get a Not enough user parameters from mIRC if you try to gourmet essays, connect to a server but you didn't have the local host filled in, or had it filled in incorrectly. Check your entry under 'File/Options/Connect/Local_Info/Local Host.' Also check to see if you supplied mIRC with a valid email address under 'File/Options/Connect/Email'. (See section 8, too.) Note: The email address is used internally by mIRC and cannot be seen by others when they do a /whois on you. Some have noticed the sarah creative email: field in essay topics the User Central dialog (/uwho command). This field is sarah lawrence program, made up of your or the other person's user@host (your username plus your local host name). in essay many cases you'll notice that it doesn't reflect the actual email address. 6-7 How do I solve the You haven't registered error? Although mIRC is shareware and sarah program, you have to register it if you like mIRC and/or if you continue to use it after the lotus sutra essay 30 days evaluation period, this is NOT a message from mIRC. Sarah Lawrence Creative Writing? mIRC will not block features or cease to function if you havent registered yet. This message is an error message from the IRC network you try to sutra, use.

If you receive this message and/or you get disconnected that quickly, your Local Host name and/or IP number might be wrong, or not filled in at program, all. Look under 'File/Options/Connect/Local_Info/', and testing, check if the lawrence creative program local host is correct and if the testing IP address (number) is filled in automatically. An easy way to solve a wrong IP Address is writing, setting the 'On connect, always get' IP Address and Local Host to ON and restarting mIRC. If this doesn't help you could be trying to connect to white racial development, a NON-public server!! Try another server to check this. 6-8 Why am I unidentified and what does it matter ? An ident server normally is maintained by the Unix machine of your network provider. Lawrence Writing Program? It is a kind of topics nameserver that guarantees your Identity. Since most standalone windows machines are not correctly backed up by an ident service, such a server is built into mIRC. IRC servers can do an Ident request to your Ident server and then expect a standardized kind of answer. More and more IRC servers require you to be identified in some way, and they will disconnect you if you're not identified ! Also if you don't react, or do so in the wrong way, they can decide to disconnect you. You can check if you're properly identified by doing a /whois on lawrence creative, yourself.

The first line in the reply should NOT contain a. (tilde) or a - (minus). If you have a. or - in it try activating the Ident server. mIRC's built-in Ident server can be switched to active under File/options/Connect/Identd/. Testing? Set it to : User ID: account name (The part before the @ in your email address normally) System: UNIX (ALWAYS fill in UNIX !! not dos, win or *whatever* else !!) Listen on port: 113 (The standard ident port number)

A problem that Proxy and Firewall users will experience is that, despite checking the Ident Server to active, mIRC will never reply to an Ident query. This is because mIRC might never get the ident request! The proxy or firewall won't pass the Ident request through from the IRC server to mIRC. That just means you'll be seen as nick! account@machine.net which is not the end of the world, unless you happen to be using a server that requires an Ident reply and disconnects you.

This can't be solved by mIRC or any other client. You will need to fix the settings of your proxy or firewall, find another server or get your provider to set up proper identing. Sarah Lawrence Program? trv. 6-9 I can't get mIRC to DCC send or initiate a DCC chat! Could it be your DCC is blocked by the LOCK option? In the essay in the File/Options/General/Lock/ menu you can disable certain mIRC features and LOCK them with a password.

This way you can block the lawrence writing DCC funtion, limit the channels mIRC can join to a small set, and lotus sutra essay, disable the program /run and essay paris, /dll commands. When the DCC is LOCKed you will see a message like DCC Send locked in options dialog will show in lawrence creative the STATUS window. The sending person causes most troubles. DCC file sending and initiating a DCC Chat (contrary to file getting and term essays, accepting a DCC Chat) requires that mIRC knows your correct IP Address. Without an lawrence creative writing program, IP number, mIRC will perfectly work as far as normal chatting is essay about in the, concerned , but won't allow DCC file sending or initiating a DCC Chat. In almost all cases that DCC sending and chatting is messed up, the initiating sending party causes the troubles.

This is caused by wrong Local Host and/or IP Address settings at the senders side. The Local Host and IP Address settings are found in the File/Setup/Local_Info menu. Typically if the senders IP Address is lawrence creative, not correctly set, the recieving party will get the dcc offer and then try to confirm and connect to argumentative essay, the incorrect IP Address. Of course, this doesn't work and you both sit there waiting. The sender will see the lawrence writing program Waiting for acknowledgement. forever while the genetic testing other person -did- acknowledge correctly. This problem is creative program, normally very simple to solve. Gourmet Essays? Also if you can not get files from sarah lawrence creative program another person ask him/her to check the IP Address settings in his/her IRC client as these settings are often wrong. 1) Disconnect from your IRC server. 2) Clear the current text in the Local Host and IP Address boxes under File/Setup in the Local_Info dialog.

3) Select both 'On connect, Always get' Local Host and IP Address options in the Local_Info dialog. 4) Set 'Method' to Normal. 5) Leave the in the Local_Info dialog and sarah creative writing program, the File/Setup menu both with 'OK'. 6) Reconnect to your IRC server and try to send a file. If this doesnt work experiment with the 'On connect' .. settings. !! ie.

For instance, try to use the 'Server' method instead of the default Normal one. Lotus Sutra Essay? (Read what this does in section 6-3) or try to set your Local Host name by hand and sarah writing program, let mIRC look for only the IP Address on each startup. Check your DCC time-out settings! Make sure that your time-out values in DCC/Options are set large enough!! Get/Chat Dialog time out after and Send/Get Transfer time out after are recommended to be set to racial identity development essays, at least 60 and 120, respectively. In case you never ever managed to get sending files or initiating a DCC Chat to work, not even after studying all these hints, it might be that your provider blocks these DCC connections by the kind of internet access they give you. Especially the use of lawrence creative writing program a firewall or proxy by you or your provider will block DCC connections. If you have Dynamic IP. If you have dynamic IP (your IP address is different each time you log on), make sure that On connect, always get: in the File/Setup/Local_Info dialog is essay about iliad, set to get the Local Host and IP Address. If these were already set to sarah lawrence creative writing program, ON make sure the correct 'local host' name and 'IP Address' are found by essay legal topics, mIRC. on some systems this is rather tricky. Lawrence Program? mIRC may not be able to correctly find your local host (domain name) and IP. With dynamic IP addressing you are in trouble then! If you have a strange Windows setup mIRC may not be able to correctly find your local host name and IP Address.

In the File/Setup/Local_Info dialog, uncheck the options to Always get the 'Local Host' and 'IP Address and manually enter your correct Local Host and IP. A known Windows95 bug causes a lot of people to report that mIRC (and any other IRC program) gets/finds the about old (now wrong) Local Host name and/or IP Address after switching Internet provider. This blocks the capability of DCC Sending files and Initiating DCC Chats. If, for some reason, no matter what you do, mIRC picks the user ID (Local Host name) from the Internet Service Provider that you no longer wish to use this is sarah lawrence writing program, fixable by editing the registry. If you open Regedit and lotus, look at MyComputer HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE System CurrentControlSet Services VxD MSTCP you will see the Domain and sarah lawrence creative, NameServer fields from your old provider.

These fields will persist even if you uninstall Dial-Up Networking and re-install and go through the TCP/IP settings again ! The best way to argumentative essay testing, solve the described problem is going to Start/Settings/Control_Panel/Network/ double click on TCPIP/ select DNS_Configuration/ and creative writing, set the HOST field to the hostname (ID) you have on your new provider. If you use Windows95 mIRC allows you to send long file names with spaces in them, but other IRC programs very often can not handle this. This might cause your transfers to about in the iliad, fail. You might want to select mIRC's option to fill (up) spaces in such a long file name by an underscore. Some people experience DCC File Send problems with mIRC on a windows system with Norton Desktop installed. mIRC then suddenly shuts down completely (sometimes with an error message) as soon as you try to select a file to lawrence program, send. The problem is essays, that Norton Desktop's feature called 'File Assist' conflicts with mIRC's DCC Send dialog. If you shut off File Assist entirely it will allow DCC transfers fine. Even just disabling the 3D look and feel in the File Assist options menu helps already. Another program known to writing program, give DCC Send problems is a software package called Long File Names by gourmet essays, View software.

It is something you might be running in the background and you might never think of lawrence it as the cause of essay on current topics your troubles. The problem is that when you use the creative writing DCC Send option in argumentative essay testing mIRC, the dialog that pops-up doesnt allow you to select files so you can't send anything. Selecting files is sarah lawrence, blocked by LFN and if you disable the LFN software all your DCC problems will be solved. Could it be your DCC is essay on current, blocked by the DCC Ignore function? In the File/Options/DCC/Folders menu you can set mIRC to save certain file types in certain directories and/or to ignore certain file types . By default mIRC will ignore all files exept the sarah lawrence writing file types that are considered safe, like *.bmp, *.gif, *.jpg, *.log, *.mid, *.png, *.wav, *.txt, *.zip. As you see mIRC will IGNORE executables and all sorts of script files by default. This safeguards you against the ignorant acceptance of virusses and other harmfull files. If you want to term, be able to accept other files by DCC, like *.exe, *.com or *.vbs files you have to add these to the list of accepted file types. When a file is offered to you and automatically rejected by program, the DCC Ignore a message like DCC Send from domino rejected (Defrag.exe, file type ignored) will show in testing the STATUS window. Could it be your DCC is blocked by the LOCK option? In the File/Options/General/Lock/ menu you can disable certain mIRC features and LOCK them with a password.

This way you can block the DCC funtion, limit the channels mIRC can join to a small set, and disable the /run and /dll commands. When the DCC is LOCKed you will see a message like DCC Send locked in sarah lawrence creative writing program options dialog will show in the STATUS window. Could it be the sender has wrong IP Address settings? In almost all cases of DCC problems the initiating (sending) party causes the troubles. In almost all cases where DCC Send (or Chat) stops functioning (suddenly) or never worked at all, this is caused by wrong Local Host and/or IP Address settings at the senders side. Typically if the senders IP Address is not correctly set, the essay on current legal recieving party will get the dcc offer and try to confirm and connect to the -incorrect- IP Address.

Of course, this doesn't work and you both sit there waiting. The sender will see the Waiting for acknowledgement. forever while the recieving person -did- acknowledge correctly. Writing Program? Here the sender has a wrong setup, not the recieving person. This problem is normally very simple to solve by setting the correct IP Address. Do you have incorrect download directory settings? If you get some error message like invalid directory or cannot write to file you have to term essays, check and creative, fix the download directory settings in the DCC/Options/ dialog. Is the default set to a valid directory? It sounds stupid but also full harddisks block getting files very effectively! NetCruiser, Twinsock, and Internet in a Box are not 100% Winsock compliant, and some users experience DCC problems with mIRC and other programs. complain to Netcom or the white racial essays others.

Some people also get the error unable to create socket on IBOX and other winsocks. If this happens, try to connect again (choose File/Connect or type '/server'). This sometimes works. In channel, query and DCC chat windows mIRC uses a nice select-and-copy-in-one-move feature. Copying is sarah lawrence, done automatically as soon as you release the mouse button you used to select the white racial text with. Just highlight the text and release. Isn't that a nice feature?

Use ctrl-v to lawrence writing program, paste the copied text. All text shown in mIRC outside the channel windows (in settings, menu's, dialogs and on the edit box line) can be copied, cut and pasted normally using the ctrl-c, ctrl-x and gourmet essays, ctrl-v key combinations. 6-12 How do I get colored text in sarah mIRC? mIRC allows you to fully modify the default color settings of all kinds of text and message windows. Look for the dialog under the Tools/colors/ menu item. Virtually everything can be shown in sutra whatever color you like most. By default the colors are set in a way that clearly distinguishes the various kinds of sarah lawrence program messages you'll encounter on IRC.

Do not hesitate to experiment; the topics Reset button will set all defaults back! In addition to the configurable colors which you can set 'locally' in mIRC to indicate different kind of creative writing program messages, you can also use colors on your text lines seen by others. Use the ctrl-K key combination to insert special control characters in essay genetic your text. Add a number from 0 to 15 to use one of the 16 available colors. 6-13 How can I customize the sarah lawrence writing program fonts used in mIRC ? All font settings can be done from the windows' System Menus (those menus under that little horizontal bar or small icon in every top left corner of ANY window in mIRC and Windows), the abstract essays /font command or the Tools/Font menu item.

Use /font or select the 'Font' option in the System menu and a fonts selection dialog will pop up. Here you can choose whatever fonts are available on your machine. Lawrence Writing Program? This could be New Times Roman, Arial, MS Sans Serif. whatever you like. You can also set the font size and set it to essay on current topics, bold. (italic is creative program, available but disabled for essay genetic testing, most fonts at the moment) The settings you set here will be saved as the default for the window you are in. 6-14 How can I select custom backgrounds in mIRC? Very easy! In all channel, query and DCC windows open the system menu (the top left little icon) eventually by typing ALT - (ALT minus). You will notice a /background/select/ dialog.

Select any bitmap you like and it will be placed in the background of the window you were in. To change mIRC's main background right-click on it and a selection dialog will open. A script is nothing but a combination of writing program automated reactions your mIRC performs for you, often combined with simple commands to control or trigger these reactions. mIRC has three sections in lotus essay the Tools/ menu in which it can be programmed in sarah creative writing some way: The Aliases, Popups and the Remote sections. With these sections, in combination with the Users and gourmet essays, Variables sections, you can completely program and modify mIRC's behaviour on IRC. The combination of creative Aliases, Popups and lines in essay on current topics the Remote section usually is called a script.

First of all you have to creative program, make sure you really need a script. Scripting is not difficult but if you simply want to auto-op your friends on your IRC channel, or if you want to ban or ignore an annoying person, mIRC is perfectly equipped already with functions that do exactly what you want. In this case read the section about the auto-op, protect and ignore lists. In case you really need a script to make mIRC do some advanced tricks nobody thought of before, read study and learn the sections on programming mIRC in gourmet essays chapter 7 of this FAQ. I strongly discourage the use of scripts created by other persons. If you did not write your script yourself, chances are high you have noo idea what exactly the script is doing and sarah lawrence program, you, and your PC, are in the hands of the author of the script, a person who could very well turn out to be a malicious hacker. I'm not trying to get on your nerves here but you should realize scripts are very powerful. It is easy to write something that allows others to access and completely ruine your PC, or to read copy and abstract term essays, spread all the private documents, email and passwords stored on your PC.

Note; By default mIRC does not come with any scripts or settings that can get you in trouble. The default settings in mIRC for DCC file transfers etc. are perfectly safe. All changes to settings that, in combination with other settings, or careless behaviour, could get you into trouble will display a warning message before any changes are made. Of course creating a script can be great fun. You can program lots of usefull things in mIRC and I encourage you to share your tricks with your friends on IRC. 6-17 How do I specify people correctly in the auto-op, protect and creative writing program, ignore list? When you look in on current the Address Book in mIRC, in the Control section, you will find the Auto-op, Protect and Ignore address lists with which you can easily auto-op and protect your friends on your IRC channel, or ignore an annoying person. Lawrence Program? This set of 3 lists provides you with the most basic channel maintenance possible in essay mIRC.

No scripting is needed to use these functions. If you need better, smarter, but also more difficult to understand functions or behaviour, you should check out mIRC's 'remote' capabilities explained in section 7 of this FAQ. For starters these functions will do fine I think. For mIRC to be able to op, protect or ignore a person on IRC it matches the sarah creative program nickname or address of that person with the nicknames and addresses you have in the op, protect and ignore lists. In the address definitions you can use wildcards. The full address format of a person on IRC is Nick!Account@machine. Lets assume that Bill responds to a /whois bill with: Bill is legal topics, gates@pentium.company.com * Billy A Lot Of Names Gates. Bill irc.server.company.com (A superb company)

Bill 666 seconds idle. Bill End of creative /WHOIS list. If you don't care about channel takeovers and other annoying things, you can just specify the nick (Bill) of the person you want to auto-op, ignore or protect. If you want to be sure you 'op' , ignore and protect the right person, and not a faker, specify them by their address if possible. In that case, Bill would be best referred to by. You could also use *!gates@*.company.com if he works on several machines with different nick's.

To add a user to genetic, the lists use the /auto, /ignore or /protect command (like /auto *!gates@*.company.com), or use the command while specifying an sarah lawrence, [Address Type:addresstypes], or add a user by simply typing him into the specific edit box. Lotus Essay? Make sure to switch the functions to active by the checkbox under File/Options/IRC/Control totally right of the writing function markers of the edit box. Or use the commands /auto [on|off], /ignore [on|off] or /protect [on|off] on argumentative essay testing, the command line. You can make the lawrence creative writing program auto-op, ignore and term essays, protect more specific by specifying some parameters. The auto-op and protect can be set to sarah lawrence creative writing, make people operator and/or protect them only on certain channels if you want. In that case just specify the channel names. like. /auto nickname|address [#channel1,#channel2. Abstract Essays? ] and.

/protect nickname [#channel1,#channel2. ] (protect only works with nicks!) If you dont specify one or more channel names mIRC will op and sarah writing program, protect the person on all channels where you're operator. The ignore can be set to term essays, ignore only certain actions from a person. mIRC distinguises between private messages, text in channels, notices send to you, ctcp commands and invitations. From the command line you can use: /ignore [-pcntik] nickname/address [type] where p = private, c = channel, n = notice, t = ctcp, i = invite, k = color. Sarah Lawrence? (more parameters discussed in the help file!) In the ignore section an ignore will look like nick!userid@host.domain,private,channel,notice,ctcp,invite. Essays? If you dont specify any of these additional parameters mIRC will just ignore somebody totally. The best script is the script you wrote yourself. mIRC's scripting language is very flexible and sarah lawrence creative writing program, easy to learn. By reading the Help file and the sections in gourmet essays the end of this mIRC FAQ, you easily learn the basics of mIRC's scripting. More advanced scripting questions can be asked to the usenet newsgroup alt.irc.mirc. If you don't know what to write in your script, or if you have noo idea how to start, try looking in some of the lawrence creative writing program pre-fab scripts spread over the web and on IRC.

As always beware of using a script you do not fully understand. Many scripts writers included backdoors in their scripts that can make you do things that are out of your control. Therefore read reviews and documentation from and about the script. Many help channels refuse to lotus sutra essay, help with pre-fab, or third party scripts. Sarah Creative Writing? The only way to racial, get help with such a script is sarah lawrence creative writing program, from the author or other users of the script. Most mIRC related help channels on IRC -will- help you with stand-alone remote lines and small scripting problems. 6-19 What are Trojans? What are script.ini and argumentative essay genetic, dmsetup.exe? In short; Trojan horse attacks are attractively disguised files that you download and run, resulting in harmful and dangerous consequences ranging from creative takeover of your IRC channels, erasing of your hard disk, theft of your account passwords, etc.

These (Trojan) virusses are not mIRC or IRC specific, they just spread like fire on IRC. Trojans are typically files with suffices like ini, exe, or com, such as dmsetup.exe or script.ini. These days nearly all trojans are spread in the guise of a free game, handy tool or other software. You probably downloaded one from a WWW or FTP archive, ICQ file exchange, or through IRC's DCC file transfer (by manual /dcc get or, even worse, an auto DCC get feature which allows anybody to send you anything, including not only abstract essays trojans but also other viruses, porn, and more illegal things). Typically the Trojan needs to sarah writing program, be run manually at first (by you), and then installs hacked files all over testing your disk silently. There are many different versions of those files, but almost all of them interfere with your mIRC placing backdoors in scripts. The files then auto-send themselves (using an creative writing program, 'ON JOIN' event) to everyone who joins the lotus sutra essay same channel as an infected user without the sarah creative writing program users knowledge. At http://www.irchelp.org/ you will find detailed instructions and information on all kinds of problems you may encounter on about in the iliad, IRC. At this site the sarah writing best help for problems like this is concentrated and organised by people who are on IRC 24/7, in the Help channels and alike. Read http://www.irchelp.org/irchelp/security/trojan.html to lotus, learn all about the virusses on IRC, mostly called Worms or Trojans, that might tackle you.

Prevention : NEVER download files from creative people or sites which you aren't 100% sure about. Gourmet Essays? Never use the auto DCC get feature, and always scan your DCC gets with a decent virus scanner. Note that mIRC by default does NOT accept files from strangers. Sarah Creative Writing Program? This has never been otherwise either. If you accepted files by the auto DCC get feature in mIRC, you have switched this option ON yourself, really. Do not, never ever, accept anything you have not requested. Do not accept anything from lotus sutra essay someone you don't know, no matter how attractively packaged.

Removal : Removal of script.ini, dmsetup.exe, and other trojans is a difficult subject. The many variations of the sarah writing files have different removal techniques. http://www.irchelp.org is a great information resource for removing these worms. Research all information resources before trying to remove the essay on current worms to lawrence writing program, help determine the best removal techniques. 6-20 How can I make mIRC react to Remote Commands? Use the Tools/Remote/ section. mIRC can react to CTCP commands given by other users. You can customize your responses to CTCP commands and offer files: features that usually require scripting but here are handled by the Tools/Remote/Commands section.

It is topics, this section in mIRC that can handle OPME, KICK, MYLEVEL, or XDCC SEND commands for you, if you configure it well. Setting up the remote section is not an easy task, but the lawrence creative program way it works guarantees full freedom to make it do what you want it to do. As soon as your mIRC receives a CTCP command from somebody else, it checks if that command is defined and if so, it matches the required user level against the level of the remote user. If the remote user has a suitable user level his command is executed. Essay Testing? All commands given to you have to have the format '/CTCP yournick command parameter(s)'. If a command is defined on creative, several levels, the highest ranked one is essay about iliad, executed.

See the help file included in sarah writing program the mIRC package for detailed instructions and white identity essays, read the tutorial in section 7 of sarah lawrence program this FAQ. 6-21: How can I make mIRC react to gourmet essays, Events? Use the Tools/Remote/ section. Events are all things happening on channels or in lawrence creative program private conversations on white racial identity, IRC. People joining, leaving, getting opped, deopped, greeting you, even plain talking all are Events. You can configure mIRC to react however you like to almost anything that can happen in lawrence creative writing IRC. See the sutra essay mIRC help file for further instructions and read the tutorial in section 7 at the end of this FAQ. 6-22 How do I specify my friend Bill correctly in the Users list with an access level of 2? (In the Tools/Remote/Users section..) You can add your friend Bill with access level 2 to the Users list in two ways: 1. Specifying the lawrence program nick -- 2:bill 2. Specifying the address -- 2:bill!gates@pentium.company.com

Of course, specifying the address is the safer option. Wildcards are supported, such as 2:*!gates@pentium.company.com. In which case all nicks bill could use on his account are recognized. To get the ON OP, ON DEOP, ON SERVEROP and ON NOTIFY events working you *have* to specify a person by gourmet essays, his nick !! It won't work if you specify his full address only. In the case of bill, you could use BOTH Users list lines mentioned above. You could just type the nick and/or address straight into the Users section under Tools/Remote but mIRC also has special commands to creative program, add people to your Users list straight from the command line. Look in the mIRC help for the commands /auser, /guser and /ruser. 6-23 I get disconnected after the /LIST command. It is quite common that everytime you do a /list, you get disconnected part way through. Even if you try a partial list, eg. /list #love, it runs for about 90 seconds and lotus, then disconnects you.

Sometimes using a local IRCserver helps. You didn't do anything wrong. It is important that you realize what happens if you do a /list command. The server generates a list of all channels (about 2000 on Efnet) and quickly sends that list to you. BUT, because the data throughput isn't infinite, the whole output of the /LIST command is queued in a buffer on the server. At some point that buffer gets overrun, and the server, detecting this ('reached maxsendq'), disconnects you. This mechanism is made to disconnect people who generate more characters per second than any 'normal' person uses for normal conversations. It's a protection mechanism, but unfortunately the server does not recognize that the data stream you caused is simply the result of creative program your harmless /list command, and disconnects you.

You can also tell mIRC to show only channels with a minimum and a maximum number of gourmet essays people. Also, if you specify a #string, then mIRC will only list channels with that string in their title. Sarah Lawrence Creative Writing? BUT, for the problem described, this does not matter/help at all!! The server ALWAYS returns the essay genetic entire #channel list and mIRC (like all other clients) takes care of the filtering!! So, asking for a partial list to prevent you from lawrence creative disconnecting won't make ANY difference!! So, this isn't an mIRC bug.

It's a pity, but there's nothing you can do to prevent this from happening. It's just one of all-too-many IRC oddities. Try using some other servers, as many aren't quite so touchy. To facilitate users on relatively slow modem connections the list of channels is also saved to a file channels.txt in the mIRC directory. The channels list dialog has Apply and essay legal topics, Get List buttons. If Get List is pressed then a fresh list is creative program, read from the server, if Apply is pressed then the latest list you downloaded earlier is used to white racial development, search for channels etc. This means that you once you succesfully retrieved a list once, you can decide to sarah writing, use that list in later IRC sessions! Or you can share lists with other people. Of course a list wont be totally up to date everytime but for the major channels that doesnt really matter and argumentative genetic testing, you'll never get list-disconnected again :-)

Oh . check out the sarah lawrence list window popup menu !! Once you've done a /list the list is stored in memory and available for re-processing with keys, min/max settings and additional filtering! Right click in the channels list window and play with the parameters you can set! 6-24 How can I protect myself from flooders? You can protect yourself from sutra essay people who are flooding you with the automatic anti-flood system. Creative Writing Program? Look in essays the File/Options/IRC/Flood/ section. A server usually disconnects you for sending too much data to it in a certain period of time, *or* if you try to lawrence creative, send it data when it hasn't finished processing your previous data. Genetic Testing? The new flood protect makes sure -others- cant make you to send tooo much data to the server. Sarah Writing? Usually a server has a buffer of about 512 bytes. mIRC therefore counts the number of bytes you've sent to a server and gourmet essays, if this exceeds a certain number, mIRC waits for the server to sarah lawrence writing program, be ready again, before it continues sending data.

In the mean time it nicely buffers unsend lines. This should protect you properly from all sorts of ctcp floods and so on. You set the amount of bytes mIRC may safely send (for instance 350 bytes), the amount of lines it may buffer (like 20), the amount of lines it may store maximal per user (like 3) and how long the flooder should be ignored (like 30 secs) by the command /flood 350 20 3 30 This flood control method *only* works for messages being triggered by other users. So you can still flood *yourself* off the server. (like with the /list command) 6-25 Running multiple copies of mIRC. You can't just start the 16-bit mirc.exe a second time. If you want to run a second copy of about in the mIRC16 (don't ask me why), it's best to sarah lawrence writing program, rename your mirc.exe to mirc1.exe and also copy your mirc.exe to about, another instance, like mirc2.exe. Sarah Writing? ( In the windows File Manager select mirc.exe and with File/Copy copy it to mirc2.exe, and with File/Rename rename it to essay in the, mirc1.exe.

Both copies can be kept in the same directory (the mIRC home dir.)) Do the same for the mirc.ini file that can be found in the c:windows directory or in mIRC's home dir. (Unless specified otherwise mIRC uses the sarah creative program mirc.ini file found in c:windows. ) Copy mirc.ini to a mirc1.ini and to a mirc2.ini. Now in the Program Manager, rename the argumentative essay mIRC icon to an icon called mIRC1, and use that to sarah lawrence creative writing, start the first copy. 'Under' the icon, on the startup line, state c:pathmirc1.exe -i c:pathmirc1.ini to make sure mirc1.exe will use the mirc1.ini! Also, make an icon called mIRC2, and legal, use that to program, start the second copy. Essay? On the startup line 'under the icon' state c:pathmirc2.exe -i c:pathmirc2.ini to make sure mirc2.exe will use the mirc2.ini! The -i startup line parameter tells mIRC to use the file after it as ini file. If you want to place the program mirc.ini files in another directory than your windows or home dir, make sure to specify the full and correct path! You can now startup both exe's and configure them independently. Nice huh? If you use the testing 32-bit version of mIRC you CAN run a second instance without problems without having to provide a second, renamed .exe file.

You don't have to rename and sarah creative writing program, or copy the mirc32.exe. Essay About Paris Iliad? BUT you still have to lawrence, create 2 shortcuts with unique mirc.ini names on the startup-line to get your 2 mIRC's working independently and essay on current, not interfering . Don't forget that :-) 6-26 How do I make myself invisible to sarah creative writing, other users ? And what it does and doesn't do. Sutra? ;o) In mIRC, you can make yourself invisible with: /mode +i. The title of the STATUS window will show (+i) after your current nickname. If you change nick, you will remain invisible under your new nick. Use /mode -i to make yourself visible again. Nobody can detect your changing from program invisible to visible or vice versa. When you're invisible, you are always visible to essay topics, all the people who are on the same channel(s) as you are. Sarah Creative Program? When you join a new channel (while invisible), everyone in the channel sees you joining. Argumentative? Also, leaves are NOT hidden.

Also, when people do a /whois yournick they will see a normal whois list on you if the sarah creative nick they enter matches your's exactly. So, what's the point of this invisibility capability ? Users NOT on the same channel as you WILL NOT be able to see your name if they do /who . Also, if they do /names to legal, list all the sarah lawrence creative writing program people currently on argumentative essay genetic testing, IRC, they won't see you. Also doing /who *part.of.your.address.net* won't result in your nick turning up. The point of being invisible is not to be able to stroll along channels like a ghost without anyone seeing you, but to hide (a bit) from users that scan channels with /who to find you. If they scan channels by creative program, actually joining them, then invisibility won't help you. To get rid of annoying people: first make yourself invisible . Essay Paris In The Iliad? then change your nick and make sure those people can't join the creative writing program channels you are on in order to find out your new nick. (also, doing: /ignore helps a lot ! 6-27 How does the sound command in mIRC work ? Assuming you have a sound card or a speaker driver allowing you to play sound files on your PC, you can make some funny use of sound on IRC with mIRC. Argumentative Essay Testing? Already available in mIRC before version 3.7 was the /wavplay command which allowed you to play a .wav sound file locally to you. In version 4.7 playing of Midi files is added and the command renamed /splay. With this command you can for instance play wav's and midi files to alert you when your friends join IRC or when people get kicked or whatever else. You can 'program' these events in mIRC's remote section. The /sound command allows you to send a request to any other party to play a .wav or .midi file he and sarah lawrence, you both have.

First set mIRC to abstract essays, Accept sound requests under File/Options/Sound Requests/ The command syntax is program, /sound [nickname|#channel] [action text]. As you see in the play request an identity essays, action text may be specified which will display on sarah creative writing, the other side. I have to stress that the essay iliad actual wav or midi file is NOT sent to the other party. We dont want to stuff the sarah lawrence creative writing program net with data you know :-) The command just triggers playing of the sound file at lotus sutra essay, your and somebody elses machine. So make sure that the other party has the file you want to start. Lawrence Creative Writing Program? A /sound friend tada.wav does a tada command done by you will result in '*friend* does a tada' and argumentative essay genetic, the tada sound at your side (the *friend* confirms the lawrence creative writing program destination to you) and the action * afriend does a tada with the tada sound played at your friends side.

This command currently only works in between mIRC users and people using compatible clients! The command format is /sound [nick|#channel] [message]. Essay On Current Topics? The message will show as an action to the recievers and both you and lawrence creative program, they will hear the wav you selected. mIRC will look for essay, your sound files in the directory you set under File/Options/Sound Requests/ Now you're playing with sound you might like the support for sarah lawrence creative writing, Microsoft Agent as well. 6-28 How does the WWW support in mIRC work ? mIRC supports all popular web browsers. You can easily surf the genetic testing web with your friends and exchange addresses of the best pages you find. mIRC's URL catcher automatically stores URL's from text passing by in channels, privates and topics in a listbox; the URL List. You can also send one or more URL's to the channels you are on (or to any private conversation you are in) by the URL window popup menu. (Popup menus are activated by the right mouse button !!) You can store URL's for future reference and set them in writing program any order you want by the use of markers.

Newly found items are appended to the end of your URL list with the gourmet essays '?' marker. When the marker for a URL is changed to sarah creative program, something else it is abstract, sorted into the permanent list. Sarah Creative Program? In the URL options dialog box you can set mIRC to delete '?' marked items on racial identity, exit. Sarah Lawrence Creative Writing Program? Also a new string is about paris iliad, created which represents the page your Netscape currently shows. You can use this $url in popup menu definitions and in sarah writing remote definitions. To get the hang of it first enable the URL catcher in the File/Options/URL Catcher/ menu. Also fill in lotus sutra the place where your www browser can be found. From that moment on mIRC will find and store all www addresses passing by on sarah lawrence writing, the channels you are in. You can see this going on if you open the URL window (use the URL button on the Toolbar or the /url command). Racial Identity Development? Then if you want to view an URL in your www browser just highlight it in the URL window and select 'view' from the URL window popup menu (right mouse button).

Alternatively you can set mIRC to react to a double click on an URL in sarah creative writing program the URL window. Once you start to legal topics, use the URL catcher you'll get the writing grip of it. Have fun ! 6-29 What is the built in finger server for ?? Lets first explain that there are 2 sorts of fingering on IRC. First there is the IRC finger that almost all clients can handle. This is a CTCP command with the syntax '/ctcp nickname finger'.

The reply you will get to this CTCP command is usually a one liner set by the user you do the finger on. In mIRC you can set this reply under File/Options/Action_Lists/ at the Ctcp_finger_reply line. Gourmet Essays? Some other clients use the alias '/finger nickname' to shortcut this CTCP finger command but thats not the official way. The other finger command comes from the finger system familiar to UNIX users. On UNIX systems you can finger the address of another user to find out some more about that person. Normally this fingering will give you the sarah creative writing persons home address, telephone number or other usefull info. Abstract Term Essays? This info is given to you by a central finger server and you need a finger client to get it. Writing? mIRC already has a finger -client- built in for essay topics, a long time under Tools/Finger.

If you specify a users address, mIRC will try to get some info on sarah lawrence creative, the person at the other end. About Iliad? The '/finger ' command is doing the same thing. Creative Program? (If you specify a nickname mIRC will try to find out about in the iliad, that users address and finger it.) Mind the syntax difference from the sarah lawrence IRC finger command !! In the legal topics newest mIRC, a finger server is built in to enable you to provide finger info even if your school, provider or company doesn't maintain a central finger server. Sarah Writing? Under Misc/Options/Servers/ you can enable this Finger server. Gourmet Essays? You also have to provide a text file with the info you want to lawrence, give. This file should meet a certain syntax as explained in mIRC's help file.

A last remark; dont be surprised if you find that the UNIX finger is hardly used on IRC ! 6-30 How can I easily serve my collection of gourmet essays shareware to others, using mIRC ? mIRC offers an unique built-in Fileserver. This Fileserver feature is a combination of lawrence creative writing DCC and argumentative essay testing, FTP. You open the server window to someone, (it's a special DCC chat window), restricting them to a certain directory tree, and they can browse your file listings, change directories, read text files, or get files. The syntax to set up a DCC server connection to somebody is: Max gets is so that the other person doesn't bring down your machine with too many parallel gets. Sarah Writing Program? 4 is probably a reasonable number. The other person will have access to his homedir and all dirs DOWN in the directory tree from that homedir on.

Welcome file is a text file you can write and specify that will welcome users to your file server. It's optional. /fserve Kreet 3 c:tempserve c:tempservingwelcome.txt. /fserve Mookies 2 c:outgoing c:networkmircwelcome.txt. /fserve Friend 7 c:

Keep in mind that you can't set up a server to yourself. Lotus Essay? you need others to program, test your server. Typing help in the file server will show the available commands, which are styled after Unix and DOS. Gourmet Essays? ls or dir will show a directory listing, for sarah program, example. Even switched commands like ls -k (show file sizes in kilobytes) and dir /w (show a wide directory listing) work. The server supports all normal ftp commands like cd dir , cd. dir, ls, get, . but NOT put, hash etc. Safety risks are none or minimal due to the major restricting of available commands. Of course, the argumentative genetic testing /fserve command can be used in your Remote section.

Set up a simple Tools/Remote/command like : 1:server:/fserve $nick 3 c:tempserve. Set the commands to active (/remote on) and lawrence writing, off you go. Other people only have to argumentative, type /ctcp yournick server to activate the creative writing program server. You can't set up a server to gourmet essays, your own mIRC!! So, others have to test your server !! In the directory c:tempserve, you place all files other people are allowed to get from you. The people using your server will have access to the c:tempserve directory AND ALL directories BELOW it.. like c:tempservegames. 6-31 How do you use Monologue's Text To Speech support ?? With mIRC you can use the software package 'Monologue' to speak out text at your wish. You can make it to say out sarah lawrence creative writing program, loud whatever you want that happens on IRC; on channels or in private chats etc.

With the recently introduced support for Microsofts Agent the use of Monologue has outdated a bit by the way. Better see the information on Microsoft Agent for more information on the use of agent before you use Monologue! Monologue was sold in a software package with older Soundblaster sound cards. White Racial Identity Essays? Monologue is lawrence creative program, not for free and not shareware either ! It is abstract term essays, made by sarah lawrence creative program, the Company First Byte (http://www.firstbyte.davd.com/html/fbinfo.htm). The software is some years old but I heard a 32 bit version is in development and also the 16 bit version works rather well.. and a lot of people have it. Therefore mIRC supports it to gourmet essays, have Text To Speech support. First you have to make sure Monologue is sarah creative writing program, properly installed on your PC and working in essay about in the iliad good order. It has a built in test function and should work properly with the creative writing program test and gourmet essays, clipboard support before trying it from mIRC. To use it with mIRC you have to enable its DDE support. Through DDE mIRC communicates with it. Once you enabled the DDE support you can fire up mIRC and give it a try.

In mIRC the '/speak ' command is writing program, used to send text to Monologue. It is used like : /speak this is argumentative essay genetic testing, a test /speak can you hear me ? /speak this is fun Try it !! It is fun indeed ! Once you manage to speak one-liners from a mIRC window by this /speak command, it is not that hard to get it speaking whole channels or conversations . assuming you can handle programming mIRC's remote events section. (Read and study section 7.) It is not meant to be a plug and play solution ;o) 6-32 What is a Firewall ? How can I use it ? -- A firewall is not a feature, it is something you need to sarah lawrence program, solve, something to get around. -- One potential drawback to lotus essay, an Internet connection is that other Internet users could gain access to sarah creative, files and data residing on your PC. This can be prevented by establishing a security system such as a firewall or proxy. Essays? A firewall usually consists of a UNIX machine that is placed between your PC and the Internet, and all traffic between you and the Internet must pass through that machine. So a firewall is not something included in mIRC, or something active on your PC. The problem is that most firewalls also block your possibilities to sarah creative writing program, use IRC. Normally spoken firewalls block all IRC traffic and access to an IRC server, unless specific precautions are made and a Socks compliant firewall is used. If your provider or employer uses a Socks compliant firewall that blocks your IRC access you can set mIRC to connect to the firewall to argumentative genetic testing, reach the outside world.

In this case, and creative writing program, -only- in this case, set mIRC to use the racial development essays Socks firewall under File/Options/Connect/Firewall/. Your provider or employer should be able to creative program, provide you with the necessary settings. In other, similar, situations you can use a HTTP or HTTPS Proxy to connect to gourmet essays, IRC with mIRC. A HTTP Proxy is NOT something like Internet Connection Sharing, WinProxy or WinRoute! For HTTP Proxies in the /File/Options/Connect/Firewall/ menu in mIRC select the 'Use Firewall' and lawrence writing program, 'Proxy' options. Fill in legal topics the HTTP Proxy Hostname and Port settings. Normally you can copy these from your webbrowser! See Proxies for more information.

If you never heard about firewalls before it is VERY unlikely you are behind one! In this case stay away from the firewall settings and dont enable it. Also if mIRC works for chatting but things like DCC File Sending are blocked this normally cant be due to a firewall problem, and enabling mIRC to use the sarah creative writing program Socks firewall wont help you! 6-33 How do I use mIRC's built in DDE support ? This section on about, mIRC's built in DDE support is initiated by Prophet's quick DDE Reference. Thanks for allowing me to include parts of your work in the mIRC FAQ! What is DDE? - DDE stands for Dynamic Data Exchange. DDE is used by sarah, programs running under Window to on current legal topics, communicate with each other. Sarah Lawrence Writing? In the typical case one of the programs involved acts as a DDE server, the testing other as a DDE client.

The server is always accepting requests and commands and the client is requesting information and giving commands to the server. Good examples of the use of DDE are mIRC's support of sarah lawrence program WWW browsers by the build in term essays URL catcher and the support of the text to speech program 'monologue' by the /speak command. Read more about them in the sections 6-22 and 6-25. Setting up mIRC's DDE server - To be able to control mIRC from within another application, program or another copy of sarah lawrence creative writing program mIRC running on your PC, you first have to essay about, make sure the DDE server is set to sarah lawrence creative program, active. The server settings are found under File/Options/Servers/. You should always specify an unique service name but for now the default 'mirc' will do fine. The service name is used by mIRC to identify DDE commands given to it. White Identity Development Essays? To be able to play a little with the DDE things having only one copy of mIRC running will do fine for sarah lawrence program, now, but for usefull future use you might have to start a second copy of mIRC or get another external DDE client/server. Racial Identity Development Essays? If you want to have a second copy of mIRC running dont forget to give it an unique DDE service name! The default server name for mIRC is 'mirc', but you can change the server name to anything more suitable.

How is DDE used? - To use DDE to program, provide information (or give a command);a POKE, or to ask for information; a REQUEST, you just need two simple commands. The /dde command defaults to sending a poke unless you specify the -r switch in which case a request is sent. If you are sending a poke then all four arguments including the 'data' field are mandatory, if you are sending a request then the first three arguments are mandatory. This is why you might have to use a in the 'item' field; it acts as a filler and abstract, isn't actually used for anything. This filler is important because you might have the /dde or $dde mixed with other commands or text in an alias, and mIRC has to sarah lawrence creative program, know the exact number of white development essays parameters when parsing. At the moment only one poke 'topic' exists; the COMMAND. Instead of using the /dde -r to creative program, send a DDE request its often a lot better to about paris, use the sarah lawrence writing program $dde indentifier. The $dde identifier sends a request and retrieves any data returned by the specified service. All three arguments are mandatory (as explained in the above paragraph).

Any retrieved data is inserted in the position in the alias or command where the $dde was issued. Lotus Sutra Essay? Several request 'topics' exist; CHANNELS, CONNECTED, EXENAME, INIFILE, USERS, SERVER, NICKNAME, VERSION, PORT. COMMAND topic. Lawrence? (Only for POKE's) This allows mIRC to control a second client similar to the remote CTCP DO command. The command topic is used in conjuction with the /dde command like /dde command [instructions]

Here are a few examples, assuming your mIRC uses the default DDE service name, 'mirc': /dde mirc command /join #test123. /dde mirc command /msg #test123 hello everyone. /dde mirc command /notice $me testing 1 2 3. The /dde command can be used in the Remote/Events and Commands Section in the Alias section and straight on the edit box. CHANNELS topic (Only for REQUEST's) The CHANNELS topic is essay legal topics, a REQUEST which returns a single line of text containing the current channels the listening mIRC is on. The requests can be used from the command line, an creative, alias, or in term a remote.

To be able to use and process the returned data mIRC uses the identifier $DDE to represent the data. Note that the lawrence writing active channel is marked by a star! Examples: /say $me is currently on $dde mirc channels /echo 6 $active I am currently on $dde mirc channels CONNECTED topic (Only for REQUEST's) This topic returns a single line of text with connected, connecting or not connected. Examples: /echo 6 mIRC is currently $dde mirc connected to a server.

/echo 6 mIRC is lotus sutra, currently $dde mirc connected to $dde mirc server The other topics for sarah program, REQUEST's are EXENAME, INIFILE, USERS, SERVER, NICKNAME, VERSION and PORT. Lets just give some examples: /msg $active The mIRC exe name path and lotus essay, filename is lawrence writing program, $dde mirc exename /echo 6 mIRC's ini file is $dde mirc inifile /say users on #mirc are $dde mirc users #mirc. /echo I (would) use $dde mirc server /echo 3 my current nickname is $dde mirc nickname /echo 4 My version is $dde mirc version /echo 5 mIRC is connected to port number $dde mirc port 6-34 I switched to a new provider but mIRC keeps using the old one! A known Windows95 flaw causes some people to term, report that mIRC (and several other Internet programs) tries to sarah writing program, use the winsock software of an old provider, even if all references to that provider seem to be deleted from Windows95's setup. This blocks the capability of DCC Sending files and Initiating DCC Chats. Gourmet Essays? If, for lawrence program, some reason, no matter what you do, mIRC picks up the legal topics software, user ID (Local Host name) from the Internet Service Provider that you no longer wish to use, you can fix this by editing the sarah creative registry. If you open Regedit and look at MyComputer HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE System CurrentControlSet Services VxD MSTCP you will see the Domain and NameServer fields from your old provider and maybe even references to old winsock software. These fields will persist even if you uninstall Dial-Up Networking or other winsock's and re-install and go through the TCP/IP settings again ! The best way to solve the described problem is going to Start/Settings/Control_Panel/Network/ double click on TCPIP/ select DNS_Configuration/ and set the HOST field to testing, the hostname (ID) you have on your new provider.

If this fails edit the registry by hand, but do this with care!! Copyrights - You are allowed to provide and distribute the lawrence creative writing mIRC FAQ -as is- by about paris in the, or on creative writing, any medium as long as you make it available for free. You are not allowed to change anything in the file or charge any amount of money for your services. Gourmet Essays? If you want to copy only certain parts for sarah creative program, whatever use, make sure to mention my name and the FAQ as the abstract essays source of information with every single quote whenever you publish it. Copyright Tjerk Vonck 1995-2011. Copyright mIRC Co.

Ltd. 1995-2017. Sarah? All Rights Reserved.

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pashto cover letter Pashto, also known as Pakhto, Pashtu, and Pushto, is sarah lawrence, a member of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It spoken in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and essay genetic, Pakistan as well as by a large diaspora encompassing India, Iran, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the United States. It may be spoken by around 50 million people worldwide (Ethnologue). Southern Pashto is spoken by sarah creative writing program 6 million people in Afghanistan (Ethnologue). Sutra Essay? It is a co-official language of lawrence writing program, Afghanistan along with Dari (Eastern Persian). The relative status of topics, Dari and Pashto are a sensitive topic in Afghan society. Sarah Lawrence Writing Program? Although the Afghan constitution grants Dari and Pashto equal status, many Pashtuns feel that in reality their language is lotus essay, being discriminated against complaining that Dari is the dominant language in Afghan government, official proceedings, the judiciary, and in the print and electronic media, with up to 80% of all official communication being conducted in Dari. Primary and secondary education is available in both Dari and Pashto, as well as in some of Afghanistans other languages, and parents are free to choose the language of education for their children. However, most of instruction in Afghan universities is conducted in Dari.

Moreoever, Dari serves as a de facto lingua franca among the lawrence creative various ethnic groups in the country. Northern Pashto is gourmet essays, spoken by 9.6 million people In Pakistan (Ethnologue), but it has no official status. It is taught in primary schools, but literacy rates are low. Pashtun children are educated in Urdu. Pashto is sarah lawrence writing, used in the print and electronic media. Pashto can be divided into dialect groups, differentiated mostly by pronunciation and some vocabulary. The major dialect divisions, in gourmet essays, turn, have numerous variants. In general, however, speakers of Pashto dialects can understand each other. Lexical similarity between Northern and Southern Pashto is sarah creative writing, estimated at approximately 80% (Ethnologue). The sound system of Pashto has many similarities to that of other Indo-Iranian languages.

At the same time, Pashto stands out among them as having adopted certain features from neighboring Indo-Aryan languages, such as retroflex consonants. Pashto has the following vowel phonemes, i.e., sounds that differentiate word meaning. Term? The inventory of vowels give below may vary somewhat from dialect to dialect. Pashto has a number of diphthongs, e.g., /ay, ?y, ay, oy, uy, aw, aw/. /a/ = long /a/ /?/ = a in about In some dialects, the vowels / i / and /u / can be either short or long. Besides the consonants common to most modern Indo-Iranian languages, Pashto also has alveo-dental affricates /ts/, /dz/ and sarah, a set of retroflex consonants borrowed from neighboring languages of the Indian subcontinent. They are produced with the tongue curled back so that its underside touches the roof of the mouth. Essay? Also, unlike other Indo-Iranian languages, Pashto allows consonant clusters at the beginning of lawrence writing, syllables, e.g., xpa foot, nwar sun. The chart below shows the gourmet essays consonant inventory of Pashto as reflected in the Kandahar dialect of Southern Pashto, but does not cover all the existing dialectal variations. Sarah Writing Program? In addition, there are some consonants in essay iliad, Pashto that do not occur in the speech of monolingual speakers, but only in creative program, the formal speech of bilingual educated people who speak both Pashto and Dari.

In the table below, they are given in parentheses. There is a contrast between and apical vs. retroflex consonants, e.g., /t/ /?/, /d/ /?/, /s/ /?/, /z/ /?/ , /n/ /?/, /r/ /?/. Apical consonants are produced with the tip of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth, whereas retroflex consonants are produced with the tongue curled, so that its underside comes in contact with the roof of the mouth. /q/ has no equivalent in English /?/ = sound between vowels in uh-oh /?/ = sh in shop /t?/ = ch in chop /?/ = s in sutra essay, pleasure /d?/ = j in job /?/ has no equivalent in English /j/ = y in yet. Stress can fall on any syllable of a word. It can distinguish the meaning of otherwise identical words, e.g., aspa mare and aspa spotted fever. Nouns, adjectives, and pronouns. Pashto nouns, adjectives, and pronouns are marked for the following categories:

two genders: masculine and feminine two numbers: singular and plural, with a variety of plural markers three cases: direct, oblique, and vocative (only in the singular). Cases are marked with prefixes, suffixes or both. Direct case is sarah lawrence program, used for both subjects and objects. There are no articles. There are three declensions for nouns, and five for adjectives. There are first- and second-persons pronouns. Third person is represented by proximate and remote demonstrative pronouns (similar to this and yonder) All modifiers agree with the nouns they modify in gender, number, and case. Verbs agree with their subjects in person, number and iliad, gender. Below are some features of Pashto verbs: Verbs have two stems: present and past.

Present stems can be simple or secondary. Simple tenses are formed by lawrence the addition of personal endings to the two stems. Abstract Term Essays? Secondary stems consist of a root + suffixes that indicate transitivity, intransitivity, and causativity. There are three tenses: present, past, and future. There are two voices: active and passive. There are two aspects: imperfective and perfective.

Aspect is as important as tense. Writing? There are four moods: indicative, conditional, imperative, and potential. Past tense transitive sentences are formed as ergative constructions, i.e., transitive verbs in gourmet essays, the past tense agree with the object, rather than the subject of the sentence. The normal word order in Pashto is lawrence, Subject-Object-Verb. All modifiers precede the lotus nouns they modify. Pashto shares most of its vocabulary with other Indo-Iranian languages. Lawrence Creative Writing? It has also borrowed words from other languages. For instance, Pashto spoken in Pakistan contains a great many loanwords from Urdu. Gourmet Essays? Due to the influence of Islam, Pashto has also borrowed many words from Arabic. Sarah Lawrence Writing Program? Some of the abstract essays oldest borrowings from sarah creative Greek date back to the 3rd-century BC Greek occupation of the gourmet essays territory that is now Afghanistan.

Pashto has also borrowed words from neighboring Indo-Aryan languages. Sarah Creative Writing? Today, the most important source of borrowing is English, particularly in essays, the areas of sarah lawrence creative writing program, science, technology, politics, and abstract term essays, the military. Below are a few basic sentences and words in Pashto in sarah lawrence, romanization. Below are Pashto numerals 0-10 in lotus sutra essay, romanization. The first written records of Pashto date back to the 16th century.

Pashto has always been written with a modified Perso-Arabic script that contains additional letters to sarah creative writing program, represent consonants specific to Pashto. Until the spelling system was standardized in the late 18th century, the representation of these consonants varied greatly. Sutra Essay? With the creative adoption of Pashto as a national language of Afghanistan in 1936, the writing system underwent some additional modifications that resulted in greater consistency. Various transliteration systems used today for representing Pashto with Latin letters lack standardization and may be confusing. The Pashto alphabet used to write all varieties of the languages today has 44 letters. It uses all 28 letters of the Arabic alphabet, and shares 3 letters with Persian and Urdu.

Since Pashto has more vowels than Arabic and Persian, it has more letters representing vowel sounds than contained in the Perso-Arabic script. Pashto has an extensive literary tradition. Essays? Pashtun folk literature includes stories set to music , and creative writing, a large number of short poems, traditionally composed by women, reflecting their daily lives. Below is legal, Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in sarah creative program, Pashto script and romanization. Pashto is considered to be a Category IV language on abstract the Defense Language Institute scale in terms of difficulty for speakers of English. The Pashto script is not correctly indented. Thank you for writing, your comment. Abstract Term? Can you elaborate? Ms. Thompson, the Pashto sentence is correct but is arranged from left to right i.e. you have to read it like English. I have edited the image and rearranged the Pashto text only.

It now reads from right to left like Arabic. I have made no other changes. Please use this. https://twitter.com/TalkingSpecies/status/424035603047399424. Thank you for doing this but the link you gave says This page does not exist. Can you resend the creative writing program link? Thanks. I am a native Pashto speaker from essay genetic Pakistan. I spoke in the Northern Yousafzai dialect to creative writing, my father and in the Southern [Waziri) dialect to my mother.

I liked your article which is very well written but I did notice that it is all based on Afghani Pashto. Even the few Pashto words examples are all in Afghani Pashto. Also the written script of Pashto reads backwards [left to right] which is argumentative genetic, not how Pashto is written. Just thought I would share my thoughts. Thank you. Thank for your comment.

We based the description of Pashto on the Afghani variety because this was the writing only variety that we could find an paris in the adequate linguistic description of, at least one that is available in English. If you know of any reliable descriptions of other Pashto dialects such as Yousafzai or Waziri, we would appreciate it if you could share it with us. But in the meantime, you could provide us with examples of creative, words in the above dialects. We will check the direction of the Pashto script. Keep your comments coming. yeah, it should be: ? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??. ??? ? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ???? ???. (It reads right to left like Hebrew or Arabic; the words in your version are spelled correctly but the gourmet essays order is reversed.) We fixed it. What do you think? Pashto book name (pata khazana) was written in 850Ad by khusro ameer kror.

THE correct one is. ??????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ???????? ????????? ???? ??? ???????.??? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ????????. Dear Irene Thompson, Your article is a nice try in introducing Pashto language. Creative Writing? As a Pashtu native speaker I would like to point to gourmet essays, some mistakes I found. -The Pashto sentence on sarah creative equality has still some mistakes. The latest correction made it better than it was written before. Your assertion about pashto as second language is not correct. Despite the fact that during the riegn of King Zahir all non-pashtoons employees had to attend an official pashtu learning courses, Pashtu was one of the languages though in the schools along with Dari and English. The teaching language was, as today, Dari in most schools as well as uiniversities. And if you dear correct these.

actually it is not das (10) but in pashto it is Las (10) alos it is not pashto (khuda hafiz) in pashto it is (da Khuday pa aman) Sorry for some incorrect info from you in Afghanistan there is 62% pshtons so pashto is spoken in most part of Afghanistan and approximately more thn 17 million people speak pashto in argumentative essay, Afghanistan.. I am agree with you MAIWAND jan most of people in Afghanistan speaking pashto.

dear, for ten(10) in pashto word is LASS not DAS. Lawrence Creative Writing? so,correct it,please. Thank you for the correction. Moreover, i agree with Maiwand. Dear, Assalam Alikum is an Arabic phrase rather than that of Pashtoo.However,Pashtoons being muslims use it. Dear Mr.Thompson you should to comparison b/w two languages like PASHTO and PUNJABI please. Both languaguages belong to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family, but there are many differences in the phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, as well as the abstract term writing systems between the lawrence creative program two. You can can explore these differences by essay about paris in the consulting the pages for these two languages on our website. this page is very informative. it would be lovely if you coulkd provide the reference for lawrence, the statement that Pashto language does not have a an article syte. I am not sure I understand what you mean by Pashto languages does not have a an article syte (sic). Please explain what you mean.

I am an M.phil scholar and currently working on the article system of some languages. The information i found in your page bout article system in gourmet essays, Pashto is very valuable. I am a pashto speaker and sarah lawrence, i am aware that Pashto does not have any article system. But i am required to support it with evidence. I found this evidence in your page and i am sure it will be a valuable reference. Term Essays? I was wondering if you could provide me with any other source or reference that contain the sarah same information or anything that would help me support my argument. Try the Descriptive Grammar of Pashto and its Dialects by Anne David. Essay On Current? Also OLAC Resources on Pashto http://www.language-archives.org/language/pst). Good luck. By article system i mean to say a,an, the.

According to my research with evidence the sarah lawrence creative writing difference between Pashtun and abstract, Pakhtun is that the Pakhtun was originally an Iranic tribe. Other Iranic tribes joined the sarah Pakhtuns and formed the Pashtun nation. Hence, every Pakhtun is Pashtun, but not every Pashtun is Pakhtun. Also, the term Pashto is used more than Pakhto to argumentative testing, describe the language. Also, Pashtun tends to be used more than Pakhtun. I have lots of evidence to support this but I can not disclose too much as it is part of my work.

I am a linguist and etymologist. The most common term for the language in lawrence creative writing program, the linguistic literature is Pashto (language), Pashtun (person). Any viewing of the linguistic literature will clearly show that. As Salaam o alaikom. Iliad? Can anyone tell me who arrange the lawrence alphabet of pashtho language first time.

According to Omniglot (http://www.omniglot.com/writing/pashto.htm) Pashto was made the national language of Afghanistan by royal decree in 1936. Since then, the white racial development essays Pashto spelling system has been revised to sarah lawrence creative, some extent. Today both Dari and Pashto are official languages there. Argumentative Essay? Pashto first appeared in writing during the 16th century in lawrence writing program, the form of an account of Shekh Malis conquest of Swat. Essay Genetic Testing? It is written with a version of the Arabic script (Nastaliq script). There are two standard written forms: one based on the dialect of Kandahar, the other on the dialect of Peshawar. Pashto is spoken by 45-60% of the afghan population as a native language which is about 11-16 million. And by around 26 million in sarah creative writing, pakistan (15% of the population)

Hi, i recently started work on pashto phonology. I reviewed the earlier literature of researchers and they have mentioned in their works that phoneme /f/ and /q/ in pashto are found only in borrowed words.Can you explain?And also what could be the possible number of consonants and abstract term essays, vowels in pashto language according to creative writing program, you? My understanding is that these sounds occur exclusively in so-called elegant pronunciation of Arabic and Farsi/Dari loanwords. This makes the number of consonant phonemes in Pashto 29. As for vowels, there are 7. thanks.. can you send me the link of the work of HERBERT PENZLs pashto phonology. sir, Do you have any idea about the number of dipthongs in pashto language? Possibly 8 in standard Pashto.

The number varies somewhat from legal topics dialect to dialect. A Grammar of Pashto A Descriptive Study of the Dialect of writing program, Kandahar, Afghanistan ISBN 0-923891-72-2.

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Posted in Responses to #8220;Advertisements R Us#8221; In her analysis of Coca-Cola#8217;s ad, the historical context Rubin gives allows for an understanding as to how the ad was meant to be percieved by the target audience. Rubin begins with a brief history of the Coca-Cola Company#8217;s rise to prominance. Through that small amount of information, she points out the strong association of Coca-Cola with American Patriotism that would have existed in the target audience#8217;s minds. In addition, by putting the ad in context of a freshly post World War II America Rubin clarifies the importance of the uniformed trio. She then goes on to explain the lack of diversity or gender as result of the cultural norms of the 1950#8217;s. Most importantly, however, she explains that, though race and gender are important to contemporary audiences, in sarah creative, the time of this ad socio-economic divides were more important. By highlighting that the ad is placed in a time fresh out of huge labor union controversies, Rubin allows us to see that the target audience would have cared greatly about the idea of a #8220;welcome host to development workers#8221;. As I read Melissa Rubins analysis of the 1950 Coca-Cola advertisement, it became easier to understand the actual meaning of the sarah lawrence creative writing program ad.

In particular, whom the ad was directed to, what the ad was genuinely saying, and what the underlying significance of the ad was. White Racial? Rubin illuminates many different points about the ad that the reader may have not noticed before. These points could easily win the reader over and convince him or her that Rubins analysis depicts the lawrence writing exact intentions of the ad. Legal? One piece of evidence Rubin describes to her readers is the men that are displayed in the ad. Rubin states that this ad speaks volumes about the American society in the middle of the creative twentieth century: a white, male-dominated society in which servicemen and veterans were a numerous and prominent presence. Readers can then assume that the ad depicts a typical 1950s era, which was predominately a male society.

She reiterates her findings when she points out the lotus amount of women in the picture; the sarah creative writing program count is twenty or more males and three females. Gourmet Essays? Rubin influences the reader to believe in her evaluation by the evidence she states about the setting. She tells the creative writing program reader how America increased its rates of industrialization and urbanization. After World War II, industries that were built to help with wartime efforts were in every corner of America. Most families moved into metropolitan areas to gather as a community to term essays help the country. Therefore, this ad features factories, smoke coming out the chimneys, urban buildings, and mostly importantly the gathering of men together. Rubin says that this symbolizes a sense of community and the way Americans had come together in a successful effort to win the war. Overall, Melissa Rubins analysis of this ad persuaded me to think as she did.

Her conclusions seemed logical and appropriate for both this advertisement and time setting. Sarah Lawrence Creative Writing Program? It was intriguing to actually dissect an ad and go beyond just seeing the visuals created by an advertisement. It was eye opening to find the argumentative essay genetic testing historical, factual, and analytical truth behind what I first thought was simply another advertisement. Melissa Rubin provides various insights into the Coca-Cola ad she analyzes and creative writing, has lots of evidence to support her analysis. Immediately Rubin begins noting where objects were placed in the image and how each placement had significance. Rubin discussed the population which consisted of primarily all Caucasian males and gourmet essays, only a few Caucasian females in the back of the crowd. This portrayed the time frame that the writing program ad was produced in term essays, and as Rubin pointed out there was still a lot of racial prejudice occurring during the 1950s in the United States. Of the men shown, the front row features men dressed in various service uniforms which as Rubin noted most males were subject to the draft and were valued during that time period. Lawrence? I thought it was interesting that Rubin pointed out that the Coca-Cola machine appeared to be the largest sky scrapper in the image which really is eye catching.

This allowed readers to clearly identify that their product which is Coca-Cola is term, giving positive feelings to sarah writing program the people shown in development, the image and therefore if readers drink the beverage they too will have similar positive feelings. I was surprised to see how many insights Melissa brought to lawrence creative writing program the readers attention. Normally when looking at essay about paris in the, an ad, people dont sit there and think about all the details the ad makers put into the ad. If I was flipping through a magazine, I would look at this ad and think that Coca-Cola looks good and refreshing because everyone is happy and life seems good. I would then flip the page and sarah lawrence, continue looking at the rest of the magazine. Every time Melissa gave insight into the ad I found myself flipping back to revisit the image and about paris in the iliad, being surprised at how much detail there was. I was completely persuaded by Melissa Rubin to accept her conclusions because she supported each one of her conclusions with logical facts when she gave her analysis.

Throughout her analysis Rubin speaks to creative the lack of diversity in the ad. This is historically accurate as Coca Cola would be catering towards the middle class of the lotus time period that was mainly comprised of White families with men in sarah lawrence writing program, control. Thus the only demographic displayed is working class white males. Also, among these white males, are several soldiers in uniform that provokes an legal topics onlooker to think that Coca Cola industries supported the sarah lawrence writing program war efforts of the time and the men that fought in them. The background of the picture depicts an industrial center on the left powering the towering Utopian city on the right and providing all the carefree citizens with jobs. This is a social expectation of the time and with a towering coke machine in between these two ideals, leads us to think that coke plays a big part in the happiness of the citizens. Rubin explains the ideals of the society of the 1950#8217;s in America and gourmet essays, this further clarifies coke#8217;s desire to be seen as a provider of happiness and as a key component in lawrence program, the social activities of the middle class. When we examine Ms. Rubin#8217;s analysis of the Coca-Cola ad, she delves straight into the graphic, picking it apart, looking at every single aspect of the ad. Ms. Rubin discusses the importance of noticing who is in the actual graphic.

When she examines the ad, she notices that it is predominately white males, and gourmet essays, more so, the blue collar worker. When you peel back the ad slightly you begin to notice the men in uniform. She discusses how this represents a feeling of unity between an ordinary blue collar man and the serviceman. Ms. Sarah Lawrence Creative Writing? Rubin does a fantastic job of picking apart the ad for all it is worth, closely examining each and every corner, and bringing up the historical meaning of every kind of argumentative genetic testing person, the lawrence creative writing buildings, and essays, even the sarah program Coke machine itself. Ms. Rubin seems to have a rather Educational method of breaking down the ad, sort of argumentative essay as if a sculptor is creating a statue, she analyzes every part of it, and discusses the significance in the ad as a whole. Lawrence Writing? This close picking apart provides an excellent job at providing the evidence to support her claim at the beginning.

As the reader, she has done a phenomenal job as to persuade me that the ad has a much higher significance than that of a simple marketing ad to lotus sutra essay try to get people to purchase a product that Coke is trying to sell.

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Exam Preparation and How to Write an Essay. A tutees ability in sarah lawrence creative writing program, a subject is white identity frequently not reflected in their grades simply due to inadequate exam technique. I view it as a key subject in itself and have found that a focus on this area can be some of the most productive hours spent with a tutee .. In addition to over a decade of personal experience undertaking exams, scholarships and Oxbridge interviews, I have prepared tutees for a range of exams including 11+, Common Entrance, GCSE, A Level and Degrees. Many students know the content of their subjects in detail but simply do not perform in lawrence writing program, exams. This can often be due to a lack of argumentative testing, understanding of how to prepare for an exam and/or structure an essay to best show off their understanding.

In other words, a focus on exam and revision technique is time well spent and sarah lawrence writing program can remove all the fear from a coursework or exam paper. Exams can be a daunting time for students at any age but with a little bit of time and effort, they need not be such a fearsome hurdle. Organisation and strategy are key aspects of examination technique, both of which can be taught by demonstrating the variety of ways in which to gourmet essays, prepare for an exam. Each individual will have a preferred method so it is simply a case of helping them discover the method that will suit them best . Sarah Lawrence Writing Program! Whether it involves breaking down class notes into manageable chunks , creating word games to help memorise information or creating wall posters to highlight key quotes or facts , there are numerous techniques to help each student prepare for exams. Gourmet Essays! As well as devising revision plans (realistic enough to stick to!), condensing class notes into revision cards and suchlike, exam preparation should factor in lawrence creative, awareness of assessment objectives , marking criteria and genetic testing examiner reports relevant to writing, the subject and gourmet essays level. Sarah! With a little encouragement, forward planning and practice, the stress can soon be taken out of looming exams.. Practice papers are key to abstract, taking the pressure off exams and minimizing the chances of any nasty surprises on the day. It is often an area which is underplayed by lawrence teachers at school due to their need to complete a syllabus but its importance is crucial to achieve exam success. I tend to argumentative testing, go through a few papers initially with the tutee and plan how an sarah lawrence creative effective answer should look . I then gradually encourage the tutee to attempt papers independently and under examination conditions . Essay Genetic Testing! It can be helpful to mark a completed question or paper alongside the sarah lawrence creative writing tutee so that they being to get a feel for how marks are allocated in their particular subject/board.

Furthermore, many exam boards provide examiner reports on their websites (eg AQA) which are invaluable resources to indicate the lotus sutra areas in which the previous years examinees slipped up. Common errors are highlighted and the information provided can be hugely insightful. Once students begin to think in the mind of the examiner , they can start to sarah lawrence creative writing program, approach each question in a systematic and confident way. Many students slip up by giving the answer they want to give as opposed to thinking about what the examiner is looking for and how marks will be allocated. A run through of the exams assessment objectives and gourmet essays marking criteria frequently pays off. This is another area which is creative frequently skated over in the summer term before an exam and mistakenly neglected by all too many students.. For essay based subjects, essay technique is another key skill to develop and on current topics an area in which a tutor can add great value. I have found that discussing the variety of ways in creative program, which an lotus sutra essay could be approached gives tutees the confidence to formulate their ideas on paper, structure their points effectively and develop their own systematic way of lawrence creative, tackling an essay. Everybody is different in terms of the way they like to approach an term essay and how much they like to plan.

This is where an creative initial discussion comes in argumentative essay genetic testing, useful to understand how a student currently tackles an essay question and lead on to aspects of sarah lawrence creative writing program, their approach which could be improved. Every essay has three parts : the sutra introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The introductory paragraph explains the general topic and introduces your point of view or angle you will be taking in the essay. The body is the meat of the creative writing essay. Essay! It should contain all the points you want to make and flow naturally from one point to the next. The concluding paragraph concisely sums up what you have said. Having done the research behind an essay, I would always advise writing an outline and lawrence writing the body of an essay first, then the introduction and the conclusion.. Many students fall down by essays ploughing straight into the writing of an essay without forming any sort of plan.

Whilst they words essay plan can be enough to creative program, send many students into daydream land, they will soon begin to listen when they realise how much time it will save them in the long run. Many essays lose marks in the main body where a student has gone off on a tangent and has slightly lost their train of thought. It is very obvious when this happens and if the student has lost interest by going off track, then it is highly likely the examiner will too! The net result is a weak conclusion and a below average mark. In The! This can be avoided by spending a short period of lawrence creative program, time preparing an essay outline . This is not to be confused with a draft; it is simply an organised set list of ideas for white development the essay. Lawrence Creative! Students who begin their essays by white racial identity essays writing an outline find that their academic writing skills improve dramatically. One useful first step when faced with a new essay title is to convert it into lawrence creative writing program a question, if it isnt already. This forces you to question yourself over what exactly is being asked and testing will help you formulate your key argument or in effect, your answer to the essay title. (NB: Many essay titles are given as statements and sarah creative writing you are asked to what extent you agree or disagree: do not feel that you are obliged to agree with it, however eminent the gourmet essays author may be!). By restating the title as a question, you may find it easier to form an opinion and it will truly help with the planning and sarah creative program structure of your essay. After all, your essay is essentially nothing more than a clearly stated and gourmet essays well supported argument so it is crucial that you know what it is you are arguing! Once the research has been done, my advice on tackling any essay is to first put pen to paper with a brainstorming exercise roughly scribbling down ideas that spring to mind.

This may involve single words, phrases or even quotes. These ideas can always be removed or re-shuffled so treat this as a fairly free-flowing exercise. The next step is to select your core ideas/concepts from this list and note below any supporting ideas such as a quote or more general related points. These key points may change as you re-shuffle your ideas but you be aiming to end up with an ordered set of bullet points along the lines of the below: - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea.

- Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. - Supporting idea. This outline can be adapted as you see fit but I guarantee it will help you structure your thoughts (and ultimately the main body of your essay). Once you have practised using this model, you will soon see how a good outline cuts actual writing time by half.

Instead of sarah creative program, writing complete essays, it can be more productive (and time saving) exercise to write an essay outline comprising of the white racial essays above as well as the sarah creative writing key points you will touch on in your introduction and a conclusion. Abstract Essays! You do not have to write full sentences since this is sarah lawrence creative writing only an outline. Equally, spelling and essay grammar are not of great concern until your final draft so concentrate more on ensuring that you are communicating your ideas. Sarah Lawrence Writing Program! You could go further to write an opening sentence and on current topics a closing sentence for each paragraph (more on this later!). For now, lets look in lawrence, more depth at each section of an essay.

Top tip: Consider writing your introduction last! Your INTRODUCTION is your first chance to impress the examiner. It should encapsulate your argument and form the heart of the essay. As such, you not only need to introduce the topic/title but you need to present your perspective and hint at paris iliad, what is to sarah lawrence creative writing program, follow. It is often a good idea to summarise your three key points that will feature within the essay within your introduction.

The main body of the essay will then elaborate on these points. In essence, your opening paragraph/introduction ought to be an ultra-succint answer to the essay question . In my opinion, this is why you are better writing your introduction last, or at least when you are absolutely clear as to your main argument and the key points (paragraphs) that you will use to support that argument. How else can you provide an answer/summary for something you havent yet written?! Some people like to start their essays with a quote . This can be a very effective opening to an essay if , and only if, the entire quote embodies your key argument. Essay Genetic Testing! In other words, never use a quote as an sarah lawrence creative writing excuse for not knowing what to white racial identity, write! It must be appropriate and relevant to your essay answer. A better alternative can be to incorporate a word or short phrase from the text into sarah lawrence creative your opening sentence (instead of giving a long single quote). This suggests a deep knowledge of the gourmet essays text itself, creating an creative program authoritative tone and a confident approach . Here is an example: Blanche Dubois might claim she wants magic rather than realism but in his play A Streetcar Named Desire Williams provides his audience with an extra large helping of reality . This embedded quotation demonstrates a good understanding of the text as well as offering your opinion, both of lotus essay, which will be rewarded. . However you begin your essay, avoid the dreadfully boring opening of In my essay I am going to be looking at the. . Your head is likely to be on your desk at this point before youve even started and so the chances of inspiring your examiner are slim. Dont be afraid to be fairly bold in your opening sentence (although if essay writing is not your forte, I would recommend keeping it relatively straight-forward and sarah creative non-controversial).

It is your chance to make a favourable first impression and entice the reader to read on and listen to abstract essays, your point of view so make sure you are hooking them in and giving them reason to continue. The MAIN BODY of the sarah lawrence writing essay is your chance to demonstrate why your stated answer in the introduction, is a justified one! Each paragraph is used to explain and explore a new persuasive point that supports your interpretation of the title. A good trick if you are prone to waffle is to make it a habit never to open a paragraph with any sentence that does not clearly develop your overall argument and so help answer the essay question or title . Equally, never close a paragraph with any sentence that does not explain why the point you just made is relevant to essays, the essay title and your point of view! Another technique to help you with the structure of the main body is the Point, Evidence, Explanation model. Sarah Program! This encourages you to about paris iliad, make a point, support it with evidence from the text such as using a quote and then explaining why this helps to answer the lawrence creative program essay question. If you have a tendency to waffle, then using PEE to sutra essay, structure your sentences/paragraphs is likely to help you. When deciding whether to add in a new point, ask yourself whether it relates strongly enough to creative writing program, your initial point of argumentative testing, view which you stated in your introduction. Sarah! If it doesnt, leave it out. So. your essay becomes nothing more than a series of paragraphs in which you try to persuade your examiner why your interpretation is a valid one .. NB The word interpretation is essay about paris key here.

Remember, you are getting marked on your interpretation and analysis of the text, not for repeating what happened. The examiner has read the text (you would hope!) so they dont need to hear it again. Dont waste precious time re-telling the story unless it is swiftly leading to making a clear point; not only will you not gain marks but you might even lose some! As well as making valid and well supported points, your goal should be to try to make each sentence flow into the next sentence and each paragraph flow into the next paragraph. Such cohesive writing is achieved through good structure and a pre-organised essay outline as I touched on sarah lawrence writing, earlier. Deciding on the order of your points and argumentative essay genetic testing how they will relate to one another will make your argument flow logically from one to the next. Using connectives or discourse markers can help you inter-link sentences such as therefore, consequently, in contrast etc. Ultimately, each paragraph should be leading towards the conclusion in some way.

Observing and critiquing other peoples essays swiftly demonstrates how to make an essay flow coherently and how to structure clear, concise points . This is a good way of learning about paragraph construction and writing how one idea should smoothly lead on to the next. Reading the essays of others can really help a student reflect on their own methods and improve their writing style. Try practising writing different essay outlines to the same essay title based on alternative points of view. Argumentative! This will truly help with your understanding of essay planning and structure. Self assessment can be equally productive by marking essays alongside a tutee whilst referring to sarah lawrence writing, the relevant marking criteria. Similarly, noting the key point you think is racial development made in each paragraph is a good way of lawrence creative writing, learning about essay construction . It can be good practice for white racial essays students to give each paragraph a sub-heading of what they believe to be the key point; in effect, breaking an essay down into its essay outline. Having done this exercise a few times with a range of essays, the student will swiftly be able to distinguish a good essay from a bad one in terms of structure.

They will soon appreciate that ideas should be linked via sentences and lawrence writing paragraphs, developing the essay on current topics main argument in a manner that naturally leads towards the essays conclusion. Speaking of CONCLUSIONS , many students make the sarah creative program mistake of racial, not planning their ending when it is the last thing the examiner reads before giving you a mark. In other words, dont leave it as an afterthought! The best conclusions draw on the key points made in the main body of the essay and link them all up by sarah stating how they answer your essay. It is racial identity development absolutely fine if your conclusion looks similar to the introduction; in fact, it probably will. It should not look like it is writing program tagged on but rather be intrinsically linked to the introduction and main body. A weak ending and no clear point/points made can really pull down an on current essay by several grades. The good news for English students, is that there is lawrence writing rarely one right answer so as long as you state your view clearly at gourmet essays, the beginning and support what you say convincingly in sarah creative writing, the essay itself, you cant go too far wrong. Its always a fantastic moment when you have completed your essay and are pleased with its structure and content.

Dont forget the finishing touches which might just get you the extra marks you need to bump up a grade ensure you smooth out the language and white sentence structure for clarity and flow, along with proof-reading for spelling and grammatical errors. Asking others to read the final draft can also help to lawrence creative program, reveal errors you might have overlooked and gourmet essays iron out any creases. Ultimately, there is program no right or wrong answer as to how you should approach an essay. aside from leaving yourself sufficient time! Constructing an essay the night before a deadline is lotus sutra essay possible but unlikely to result in a well structured and sarah lawrence refined piece. Give yourself plenty of days ahead of the deadline to revise your essay and make any necessary amendments. Essay Genetic! I would always suggest that you take a break after writing the first draft and return to lawrence creative writing, it the following day with fresh eyes and a clear head.

You will be better equipped at this point to revise and edit . I find printing off a draft helps me to see the essay as a whole and paris in the review which parts require further work. Sarah Lawrence Creative Writing! Whilst I emphasise that there are no strict rules in lotus essay, essay writing, simply knowing having a model in your head of how you could approach it is likely to take all the stress out of approaching an essay. In short, discussing essay flow and strategy with a tutor as well as playing around with alternative methods of creative writing program, planning can really help a student to discover their own style of essay writing which they are comfortable and confident with. In summary, a strategic approach is needed to ensure exam success and effective essay writing. Whilst there is no right or wrong way to approach an exam or an essay, it is important for each student to be aware of their options and in gourmet essays, turn develop their own independent style which works for them. Whatever your approach, I would emphasise organisation and forward planning when it comes to sarah creative writing program, exam preparation. Argumentative Genetic Testing! As for essay structure, my best advice would be to begin with a brainstorming exercise and go on to develop an essay outline from which you can build. Constructing a top grade essay means beginning with a strong foundation so learning to write well structured outlines can really improve your writing skills. Stay true to your central argument as a lawyer does to his court case, and treat the paragraphs as evidence to support what you have said. All of the above may be achieved with the help of an experienced tutor and may just be the sarah lawrence creative most valuable lesson a student has before those up and coming exams!

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