Pay for Exclusive Essay -
Research Papers in Economics - Wikipedia
Anonymous Professional Essay Writing Service. Anonymous Professional Essay Writing Service. Anonymous Professional Essay Writing Service. With a staff of over econ, 2,000 American writers and customers in over 45 countries, Ultius is the global leader in cuhk thesis, writing, editing, and business writing solutions. Your Deadline, Our Priority. This company is not bad. They have written 5 essays for econ research paper me. Iv Papers Term. I would say 4 out of 5 was well written. They get my papers back in econ paper, a timely manner for the most part. The revision is the iv papers term problem. You can get your paper revised but it will usually run after your due date so you find yourself doing some editing.
The priceS are pretty standard. I trust these guys and plan on research, using them when I need to meet a dead line but may have my hands too full. Levitria B. reviewed Ultius on Jan 26, 2015 via SiteJabber Click to iv papers term, see the original review on an external website. ? Learn more about research our commitment to verified reviews. Why choose Ultius when buying essays? Ultius deeply understands your frustration when it comes to graduate admission engineering, buying essays for reference use. There are a million options but only a few of them are reputable. While many other service options fail to offer reliable support and hire writers from foreign countries, Ultius is refreshingly different. Research Paper. Since 2010, our platform has been connecting customers with an expert selection of essay writers that are credible and internally verified as being native English speakers. When purchasing essays for model use, we offer free amenities to ensure that your experience is satisfactory. From free revisions, editorial review of your final sample, robust security to originality scans, we have all the tools to help you get the best purchased essay. We also offer an unmatched level of convenience through a mobile-friendly site, time saving features and a commitment to your deadline.
Finally, the essay Ultius difference truly comes from our strong base of American writers as well as the research paper fact that our service is cuhk library trusted, reviewed and verified. Free Amenities When You Buy Essays. Econ Research. With any model essay purchase, you receive various amenities that are free of charge. Our free revision policy allows you to make changes and modifications after the order is completed. That’s right - if you’re not happy, we will gladly work through your feedback to make sure we get your original instructions right.
Plus, Ultius employs a 24/7 staff of dedicated editors to inductive format, make sure that your final order is reviewed internally before we send it out. This internal review includes a free Copyscape originality scan to make sure that it is research paper 100% original. If it doesn’t pass, we don’t send it out. Ultius is also proud to offer an extremely convenient user experience and process when you are buying essays. Research. Our platform is mobile and tablet friendly so that you can place, manage and econ research paper review orders on the go. The interface is designed for your device and ensures you never miss a beat. Our support team is also available 24/7 via text, email, live chat and phone. With us, you will never get stuck without on-demand help.
The process is also designed to be quick and simple: The Essay Ordering Process Input the sample order details; Confirm your instructions are accurate; Finalize payment using PayPal or any major debit/credit card. Essay Format. It’s that simple. Research Paper. American Essay Writers and Top Quality. Our commitment to having talented writers is the citing a research paper staple of our platform. While lots of other sample writing services hire foreign writers, we only hire Americans that are native speakers. In fact, our hiring selection process is so thorough and rigorous that less than 3% of all applicants end up getting hired. We assure you that our writing staff is tried, tested and subject to continuous improvement. Writer Stats Fluent in hundreds of essay subjects; Trained in all modern citation styles: MLA, APA, CMS, Turabian and others; Topic specialists for your discipline. Our commitment to quality would not be complete without the fact that all orders get thoroughly reviewed by editors first.
Essay writing services from research Ultius are trusted, reviewed and verified. Turn to trusted third parties like the BBB and outline SiteJabber and you will see hundreds of verified reviews from customers like yourself who bought essays. We are accredited with the Better Business Bureau and have an “A+” rating. Even if your order goes awry, we have a strong track record of resolving issues and making things right. To protect you further, we use McAfee secure to scan our site on a daily basis. Research. This helps protect your private information. Ultius is the global leader in iv papers term, consumer writing services because we believe in research paper, doing things a bit differently. Benefits of Buying Essays from research Ultius. If you came to this page, it means you are looking for paper help with completing your essay. Essay Help Engineering. While you considering whether to buy essays, it’s a good idea to consider the benefits of using a custom sample writing service like Ultius.
Our model services can surely give you a strong advantage when it comes to completing your own work. Consider the fact that our service will save you precious time. Extra time will allow you to focus on other important things. By having a clear model to guide you, you will know where to paper, focus on in terms of direction, sources, organization and general clarity. Getting expert help is another strong benefit. Most colleges and universities even have dedicated writing help labs on campus for you. Our platform connects you in a digital environment where you will have access to experts you won’t find locally. Finally, utilizing third-party by trafficking buying essay guidance will benefit your future for the better. At Ultius, our tagline is paper “on your schedule.” However, it’s not just a tagline, it’s also our promise to you.
We deeply understand how important time management is for busy individuals. We also understand how beneficial it can be when you use trusted services to help you get more out of your day. When you use model writing services from Ultius, we save you time by doing the heavy lifting. Not only do we take the time to trafficking, digest and translate your instructions into a final sample, but we also provide insight into how the work should be done in terms of sources, addressing the core question and properly citing the required sources. Another great benefit is the final outcome you will get on your essay once you get expert sample writing help. Each and every one of research paper our writers, editors and support team members are trained in human trafficking research paper, their craft to make sure that you get a positive outcome. You can spend days and even weeks finding an expert essay writer in your field through Craigslist or your local campus. But those channels are not secure and econ research proven to connect you with the writer you need, right now. Everyone needs expert help and our writers are trained veterans in the craft ready to a book within paper, assist you after you have made your sample essay purchase decision.
Using Ultius to research, help you with your essay writing is not only convenient, but it also leads to better outcomes. Customers who buy essay model services are more ready than ever to complete the toughest essays. With the help we provide, the outcomes lead to stronger grades, punctual graduation and even strong job placement as a result of a better GPA. But more importantly, it leads to a book within a research, the satisfaction of econ knowing that you utilized all of admission help your available resources and options for the most important projects you have to work on. Econ Research. Invest in your future by investing in Ultius to help you with a sample essay. Iv Papers Term. Ready to get started? Professional American writer.
Ordering takes five minutes. Research Paper. Purchased Essay Samples and Example Work. Before you buy essays from Ultius, make sure to carefully review other sample essays we have written in the past. Like any service offered by a company, it’s a good idea to “trust but verify.” For example, you probably tested out the essay format computer or mobile device you are reading this on. You should do the same for our service. Research. For that reason, Ultius is happy to admission help, offer examples of the work that we can produce for you. Listed below are some samples we have previously written on our blog. Econ Research Paper. The only difference is that these are published for the web and library yours would not be.
Help and Resources - Even if You're Not Purchasing an Essay. Research. Even if you are not interested in buying an essay from Ultius, we have many additional guides and resources to help you construct your own. You can utilize our writing expertise and acumen to find out what a good end-product is supposed to look like and how to graduate essay help, produce it. Paper. We have taken the trafficking research paper liberty of condensing our detailed Ultius essay help section to give you a glimpse of the research paper essay writing process. Additionally, we are happy to library thesis, share our quality tools and best practices to make sure that you have everything you need to guide you through the entire audit process. Over the years, Ultius has worked with customers who bought essay samples and relentlessly studied essay preparation to determine what few key characteristics generally result in the completion of a successful essay. No matter what type of essay it is or the econ paper subject matter, the items listed below are considered best practices that must be followed. Pay close attention to the recommendations and you will be well on your way to success, even if you don't buy essays for sample use from us.
The Thesis - The Foundation of a Great Essay. Human Trafficking. The thesis statement, from the first to last sentence, must be airtight. Econ. The primary argument has to come from a solid base. If there is a specific question that needs to be answered, the thesis statement must address it within the conclusion of the first paragraph. Also, the essay thesis needs to be a plan of attack for what the body paragraphs are going to cuhk library, be about. Click here for more information on writing strong thesis statements. Good writers know that attention to detail is as must.
Plus, your professor will expect it. Make sure to clearly read the research paper instructions (all of them) and citing a book within clarify by asking questions. For example, some common things to look out for econ paper include: (ii) Required number of library sources; (iii) Essay type (argumentative, comparative, narrative…etc); Thoroughly read the original essay instructions and make a plan before even starting to write. Strong Organization = Well-Written Essay. The structure of an essay can really make it or break it for you. Make sure that you have strong opening and closing paragraphs and body content that supports your original thesis.
The introduction should funnel down to your thesis and narrow down the specific argument you want to make. Body paragraphs must have strong topic sentences and econ paper reference credible sources appropriately using the right citation style. Finally, conclusions should not introduce new information and drama coursework must recap the econ research main essay points that you presented previously. Adherence to Citation Style Guidelines. Finally, make sure to properly style your prepared essay in the appropriate citation style. Essay. For example, APA style has strict guidelines for paper cover pages and iv papers term running heads while Chicago and research paper Turabian require either footnotes or endnotes. Knowing how to development, cite properly and econ paper format things accordingly can be worth upwards of twenty percent of your entire grade.
Following the formatting rules is an inductive format, easy win, but you have to take the time to do it right. Also, always remember to credit another author’s work and don’t call it your own, especially if you bought an essay online. While writing good essays is time consuming and research tedious, it all comes down to following best practices and being diligent. Essay. Our writers follow a clear methodology that is both practical and efficient for getting the best possible outcome. First, make sure to select a good topic that you can write easily about and make sure you can find scholarly materials about econ research paper it.
Next, take some time to plan and make an outline based around a clear thesis statement. Proceed to write the body while adhering to strict rules for paragraphs and inclusion of references. Finally, complete your references page and review the draft before submission using quality audit tools. Here, we recommend the same tools that we use if you were to purchase an admission essay help, essay model from econ us. Essay Topic Selection and Research. Strong topic selection is an important first step. If possible, pick a topic that has lots of available research materials or aligns with items you are studying in other classes. Try to avoid current events as there may be a lack of available research materials. Sample Essay Topics. Death penalty Abortion rights Gun rights Gender inequality.
When doing academic research, only iv papers term trust reputable sources like JSTOR, Google Scholar, your campus library or academic search engines you have access to. Lastly, collect the econ research sources that you need first and go through them thoroughly. Outline Trafficking Paper. Now that you have picked a topic and collected some credible sources, it’s time to make a plan. Start by identifying common assumptions about the topic and find common themes. For example, if exploring the causes of poverty, you will inevitably find out that governments are the ones that control lots of paper food production and allocation to the people. Once you have enough evidence to outline trafficking research paper, support a general theme, construct a thesis statement and econ research paper make an within, outline of the core items that support that assertion. If you don't think this step is necessary, just remember that our writers are trained to follow this process on all purchased sample essay orders. You are ready to start writing. Start with an introductory paragraph that funnels down from a broad issue to a specific time and place. Provide background details as necessary.
Then, conclude the introduction with your thesis statement. Body paragraphs should be 5-7 sentences long and research start with a topic sentence. Always introduce your quotes and avoid “dropping them” without context. Finish with a conclusion that recaps each main point and make sure not to introduce any new information. Essay References and a research paper Final Review. Finally, construct your works cited page using the right citation style guide. Depending on econ, the format, you may also need a title page. Review your final essay by reading it out loud and make sure you addressed your original instructions! You should use EasyBib to trafficking paper, quickly build citations in almost any format. Research. Have a friend, teacher or trusted essay editing service review your final draft to make sure it is done properly (if you didn't already buy an essay).
References and Considerations Before Buying an Essay. While the previous section described summarized steps towards writing an coursework, essay, consider going through our extended 14-Step Essay Writing Guide for econ paper a more thorough look at each section. It also includes template that you can download as well as color-coded visual aids. You can also learn about and see examples of essay related terms in our extensive glossary section. Whether you choose to use Ultius for buying essays online or not, we hope that our extensive walkthroughs have helped you in your journey to finding essay help. Admission. Not what you're looking for econ paper or not convinced? The links below may help. Search hundreds of services. Click to iv papers term, Verify. Ultius is proud to have strong verified reviews from different review vendors.
Last updated on econ paper, 16 January 2017 . Admission. With every order, you can count on the following: Delivered on time 100% original Free revisions Awesome 24/7 support World-class writers. Paper. Every order comes with these free features: 275 Words Per Page Free Title Page Free Bibliography Free Revisions American Writers Plagiarism Scan. Connect with a professional writer by placing your first order. The entire order process takes roughly five minutes and we usually match you with a writer within a few hours. Enter code newcust during checkout and save money on your first order. Have more questions? Get in iv papers term, touch with us or explore common questions.
Ultius provides an online platform where we connect you with a freelance writer for sample writing, editing and business writing services. The company encourages and expects fair use of our services. Here are the guidelines. Order Revisions i. The company offers free revisions, but there are some limitations like the research paper deadline and whether we met the original instructions. Sample Writing ii. Custom sample services are for model and reference use only. When referencing our work, you must use a proper citation. i Revisions are offered within seven (7) days of a book a research a completed order and are free with a three-day deadline. For earlier deadlines and general changes to core instructions, costs may apply.
Explore the full Revision Policy. ii The company does not condone plagiarism, copyright infringement or any form of academic dishonesty. Econ Research. All provided sample services must only cuhk library thesis be used for reference purposes while being cited properly. Please read the research Fair Use Policy. Ultius is the trusted provider of content solutions for consumers around the world. Connect with great American writers and get 24/7 support. Ultius is accredited with the Better Business Bureau and has an citing a research, A+ rating. Econ Research Paper. © 2017 Ultius, Inc.
Before we chat, please tell us a bit about citing within a research yourself.
Custom Essay Order -
RePEc: Research Papers in Economics
Nat Turner Rebellion With Thesis Statement Essays and Research Papers. revolt led by econ research paper Nat Turner . A group of slaves killed innocent white people. Everyone involved, including Nat . Turner , were killed. Nat was the last person caught that was thought to be involved in trafficking research paper the plot. Nat Turner was caught and arrested for econ research his involvement. Durind Nat’s time in jail he was interviewed by Thomas R. Gray. Thoms Gray was a lawyer from South Hampton and cuhk, a slave owner himself. Econ Research Paper? The interview and information that Thomas Gray gathered was used in the trial of Nat Turner . Thomas Gray. Herbert Aptheker , KILL , Nat Turner 909 Words | 3 Pages. The Life and development coursework, Works of econ research paper Nat Turner Imagine being born into inductive a tiny hut, having to work in a kitchen at research age four, having no . choices about essay, anything, being beaten if you said one word about being free, and at age twelve, being forced to econ, work in the fields for no money. Well, that's what being born a slave was like.
The injustice of library thesis slavery pushed Nat Turner to want freedom for econ research paper himself and even more for others. Nat Turner was a hero because he fought for freedom of others, not just himself, and he was. Nat Turner , Nat Turner's slave rebellion , Rebellion 2301 Words | 6 Pages. Nat Turner What was the importance of essay help engineering Nat Turner and where does he stand in econ American history? . Nat Turner is an American slave, who has been forgotten about in history as well in the hearts of African-Americans. He led and organized one of the essay, bloodiest slave rebellions in American history. Research Paper? This rebellion was ¦the rebellion that served to change the course of American history in the three decades before the Civil War? (Goldman 10). Within this paper, it is to analyze on his impact on the nation. Cuba , Nat Turner , Nat Turner's slave rebellion 1383 Words | 4 Pages. as no surprise when a rebellion ensued like that of Nat Turner in South Hampton County, Virginia in inductive August of 1831. . Econ Research Paper? Stephen B. Oates’s account of graduate admission help engineering this gruesome slave rebellion was put into text in “The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner’s Fierce Rebellion .” Oates’s description of this important fragment in econ research paper American history comes in inductive format a prologue, four parts, and paper, then an epilogue in which he tells the story of the essay, time leading up the paper, rebellion in South Hampton County, the rebellion itself and the time after.
Africa , African American , American Civil War 1196 Words | 3 Pages. ? Nat Turner’s Rebellion Questions and Answers 1. Who was supposed to spill the first blood? Nat . Turner 2. When and where did the revolt begin? Sunday, August 21, 1831 in development coursework Southampton, Virginia 3. What area led Virginia in research paper cotton production in 1840? What might this imply about the slave population in this area in between 1830-1840? Southampton It increased 4. How old was Nat Turner ? 30 5. Describe Turner’s unusual upbringing. Taught to read by his white parents Spent much time. Abolitionism , American Civil War , Black people 879 Words | 4 Pages. Fires of essay Jubilee- Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion. T. Rioux February 18, 2013 Fires of econ research paper Jubilee Exam Nat’s Rebellion August 21, 1861 proved to be a day of sorrow, pain and . lessons learned. The Fires of library thesis Jubilee is a historical account of the econ research paper, events that led to the bloodiest slave rebellion in southern history.
Nat Turner is painted as a fairly intelligent and prophetic slave who believed he was chosen to free his people from admission help engineering, their slave bondage. Nat’s rebellion last almost two whole days before being halted by militia men from econ paper, the. American Civil War , Nat Turner , Nat Turner's slave rebellion 1840 Words | 5 Pages. ?Compare and Contrast: Nat Turner’s Rebellion In the essay, I have chosen to investigate the graduate admission essay help engineering, rebellion in econ research . Southampton, Virginia, known as Nat Turner’s Rebellion . This rebellion took place in August of 1851, and was also the largest slave rebellion in history, in terms of the amount of fatalities in the South. I have studied and gathered information about this rebellion from The Richmond Complier and the Constitutional Whig. Admission Essay Help? Based on econ these primary documents, I will compare, contrast, and outline research, bring to.
Difference , Nat Turner , Nat Turner's slave rebellion 786 Words | 3 Pages. The Nat Turner rebellion caused a great uproar in Virginia. Research Paper? The aftermath of the movement actually moved some in . Outline Human Trafficking Research? Virginia to push the econ research, ideas of gradual emancipation. With the library thesis, intensity of the slavery issue at econ research the time, this rebellion had the effect of causing a chain reaction in the Virginian society. The initial reaction of the white population after the development, rebellion is rather complicated. One thing to note is the econ research, power of rumors and their destructive influence.
People in Virginia started going crazy. American Civil War , Atlantic slave trade , Black people 759 Words | 2 Pages. 1831 Nat Turner and six fellow slaves prepared for their attack. Their plan was to move systematically from outline trafficking research paper, plantation to . plantation in Southampton and kill all white people connected to econ, slavery, including men, women, and children1. Human Trafficking Paper? The six men gathered by econ paper a pond in Southampton, Virginia.
Nat's four tested supporters, plus two new recruits. Drama Development Coursework? They ate barbeque and research, drank apple brandy as they waited. Graduate Help Engineering? Late in the afternoon, after Nat arrived, the econ research paper, group discussed things deeply and seriously. Nat questioned. Africa , Black people , British Empire 563 Words | 2 Pages. ?A FEW MORE TOPICS THESIS EXAMPLES TOPIC: body piercing BAD: Body piercing is popular among kids nowadays. BETTER: Body piercing among . Iv Papers Term? contemporary youth represents the latest form of paper rebelling against authority that previous generations manifested in smoking, getting tattoos, and wearing mini-skirts. TOPIC: female musicians BAD: Female musicians are getting more popular. BETTER: During the development coursework, past five years, musical artists like Sheryl Crow, Alanis Morisette, and Jewel have solidified a place. Extended family , Family , Kinship 749 Words | 3 Pages. G Thesis Statements What Is a Thesis Statement ? If you have ever worked in an office with . computers, your computer was probably connected to econ paper, a network.
In a network, there is one main computer to which all the other computers send and admission help, receive information. Econ? If that base computer shuts down, all the other computers shut down—everything centers on that one computer. In the same way, every word, sentence, and paragraph in an essay must relate to cuhk, or center on the thesis statement . A thesis statement. Computer , Creative writing , Essay 546 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis Statements A thesis statement should be argumentative (debatable) and function as a one-two . sentence --condensation of research your paper’s primary claim (or argument). Thesis statements are necessary so that readers can identify the point and/or argument of your paper early in the paper. Paper? A thesis statement also allows you to state the primary reasons behind your paper’s argument early in paper the paper. A thesis statement is not a “duh” statement , such as “The extermination of the Jews was bad. American Economic Association , Animal rights , Good and evil 740 Words | 3 Pages. Center-LAC Rm.222 The Thesis Statement What is iv papers term, a Thesis Statement ? A thesis . statement is the main idea in econ research a piece of writing. The thesis statement is typically placed in the introduction and should be comprised of two parts: a topic part, which states the outline research paper, topic, and a comment part, which makes an important point about the topic.
Example: Recent studies of second-hand smoke (topic part) have determined that it is more damaging than originally thought (comment part). Thesis statements may vary depending. Global warming , Methane , Paper 647 Words | 2 Pages. ESSAYS BEGIN WITH A THESIS STATEMENT What is a thesis statement ? A single sentence that . Research? summarizes your main idea How do you create a thesis statement ? Two Parts: (1) Topic + (2) Opinion = Thesis Statement The good, the bad, the ugly… Good thesis statements are clear, to the point sentences with enough detail to make the main idea of the essay unmistakable and the writer’s opinions obvious. Bad thesis statements may make the main idea and writer’s opinion obvious, but the. Critical thinking , Edgar Allan Poe , Essay 637 Words | 3 Pages. WTG 7a: The Thesis Statement and Topic Sentences The thesis statement concisely expresses your . main idea to your audience and is supported by development the body of the essay. Your thesis statement should do more than state a fact; rather, it should make an assertion based on your own ideas. ( Bad: iPods are devices that transport and play music. ( Good: iPods are the best source for transporting and playing music not only econ paper because they are compact and user-friendly but also because they store.
Argument , Critical thinking , Essay 623 Words | 4 Pages. because of the color of essay their skin. The legacies of slave rebellion leaders such as Nat Turner , Gabriel Prosser, . and Denmark Vassey have and continue to be heroes for thousands of slaves worldwide. ------------------------------------------------- Thesis Statement (Usually the last sentence(s) in the introduction): ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- Tacky's Rebellion Together with a small group of Ashanti followers, he. Cuba , Gabriel Prosser , Haiti 908 Words | 4 Pages. ?This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and . how you can discover or refine one for paper your draft. Cuhk Library? INTRODUCTION Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to econ research, clean up, your parents to cuhk library thesis, let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for econ research your favorite. Adventures of human trafficking research Huckleberry Finn , Argument , Essay 1885 Words | 5 Pages.
? THESIS STATEMENTS A thesis statement is the main idea (topic) of an essay. It is often a point . you want to argue or support in an essay. It contains your opinion/attitude towards a topic. The thesis statement explains to a reader the main idea of the essay, and the writer’s opinion on that idea. A thesis statement is one sentence in research paper the introductory paragraph of the essay.
A thesis statement is a claim that could be argued. The essay will contain evidence and opinions that support the. Abuse , Bullying , Humiliation 1063 Words | 5 Pages. The Thesis Statement This is not an exhaustive list of bad thesis statements , but here're five . Inductive Format? kinds of problems I've seen most often. Notice that the last two, #4 and #5, are not necessarily incorrect or illegitimate thesis statements , but, rather, inappropriate for the purposes of this course. They may be useful forms for papers on different topics in econ research other courses.
1. The non- thesis thesis . A thesis takes a position on an issue. Admission Essay Help? It is different from paper, a topic sentence in that a. Argument , First Amendment to the United States Constitution , Freedom of speech 966 Words | 5 Pages. The thesis statement or main claim must be debatable An argumentative or persuasive piece of writing must begin with a . debatable thesis or claim. In other words, the cuhk thesis, thesis must be something that people could reasonably have differing opinions on. If your thesis is something that is paper, generally agreed upon or accepted as fact then there is no reason to try to persuade people. Example of a book a research a non-debatable thesis statement : Pollution is bad for the environment. Econ Paper? This thesis statement is not debatable. Drug , Drug addiction , Gang 1003 Words | 4 Pages.
The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner’s Fierce Rebellion. ?The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner’s Fierce Rebellion , a book written by Stephen Oates is about a slave insurrection led by . A Book? Nat Turner in 1831. The United States was still a very young and research, vulnerable country in the early 19th century. Slavery was seen as an essential part of the drama development coursework, economy and the American experience. Stephen Oates compares the differences between Southern and Northern slaves. In the Deep South blacks where assaulted, publicly humiliated, murdered and lynching’s were all part of. Black people , Cuba , Nat Turner 1502 Words | 4 Pages. you are essentially making an argument.
You are arguing that your perspective-an interpretation, an evaluative judgment, or a critical evaluation-is a valid . one. A debatable thesis statement Like any argument paper you have ever written for econ research paper a first-year composition course, you must have a specific, detailed thesis statement that reveals your perspective, and, like any good argument, your perspective must be one which is debatable. Examples You would not want to iv papers term, make an argument of this sort: . Bibliography , Essay , Modern Language Association 1174 Words | 4 Pages. Rhetorical Analysis of the Confessions of Nat Turner. In The Confessions of Nat Turner , Thomas R. Gray attempted to provide the public with a better understanding of “the origin and . progress of this dreadful conspiracy, and the motives which influences its diabolical actors” (Gray, 3). Econ Research Paper? Gray hoped to replace a thousand idle, exaggerated and cuhk, mischievous reports with a single, authoritative account of the event. To do so, he had to establish that the confession was voluntary, that the transcript was accurate, and that Turner was telling the truth. As. Confession , Confessions , J. Research Paper? M. W. Turner 1177 Words | 3 Pages. Write a thesis statement each as per the Feminist theory of Criticism and the Reader-Centered theory of Criticism based on “A . Inductive Essay Format? Rose for Emily”. Use the author’s name in it.
Some of the tips you could use are as follows- Feminist- Use words such as “depicts” ,” illustrates” “ portrays” etc. Paper? Determine what it says about inductive format, women in general. Determine how it portrays the main female character(s) in the selection; about her traits. What does the selection reveal about the author’s attitude. Character , Gender , Phrase 570 Words | 3 Pages. ?Tekia Huggins Nat Turner Paper April 17, 2014 As a slave Nat Turner’s life prior to econ research, the slave . rebellion lacked consistency due to constant separation, whether it be from iv papers term, a slave owner or family.
Turner believed he had a specific role to play and become confident that his personal calling regarded to the issue of obliterating racial enslavement. He states in his confession, “I surely would be a prophet, as the Lord had happened before my birth. And my father and mother strengthened me in paper this first. Africa , American Civil War , Atlantic slave trade 490 Words | 2 Pages. History 120 4/8/14 Nat Turner Turner was born into slavery on October 2, 1800, in Southampton County, . Virginia, on slaveholder Benjamin Turner’s farm. He led and trafficking research, organized one of the bloodiest slave rebellions before the civil war. This was the rebellion that served to change the course of American history. When Turner was born, his mother was so determined not to subject him to a life of slavery, that she tried to kill him as soon as he was born, but when Turner was the age of three his.
American Civil War , Black people , Nat Turner 474 Words | 2 Pages. com/login.aspx?direct=trueamp;db=nfhamp;AN=2W63604988158amp;site=src-live Database: Newspaper Source Thesis : “The negative implication . associated with same-sex parent adoption continues to affect both attitudes and econ paper, laws for iv papers term the worse. Society is research, still loaded with biased opinions against homosexual’s adoption, which severely limits their rights as people, notwithstanding parents.” Thesis : “In the essay, twentieth century, America has undergone vast changes in family styles. Because of the increase. Gay , Homosexuality , LGBT 491 Words | 3 Pages. ? Ang Pagsusuri sa Epekto ng Teknolohiya sa Edukasyon, Kalusugan at Pang Araw-araw na Gawain ng mga Kabataang Pilipino na may Edad 13-18 taong gulang. . Thesis statement : Mga maganda at di magandang epekto ng paggamit ng teknolohiya sa pamumuhay ng kabataang Pilipino.
Nais naming matuklasaan kung gaano binabago ng teknolohiya ang mga kabataan at kung makakatulong ba ito o nakakasira sa kanilang paglaki at paper pag-uugali. SANGGUNIAN 1. Inductive Essay? Kiernan, J. T. (2011). Technology, Freedom and paper, the Human Person: Some. Anxiety , Anxiety disorder , Facebook 2448 Words | 5 Pages. Jacob Dearing APUSH 2/20/13 Thesis assignment 1. The American city was changed drastically in the first half of the 20th . century with the beginnings of the iv papers term, industrial revolution and econ research paper, the ongoing flow of foreigners into an already crowded United States.
2. Many men around the inductive essay format, time of the 20th century had parts in the progressive era reform and were influential in politics and majorly through social conditions. Econ Research Paper? 3. Progressive era reforms were not that prominent in the late. Federal government of the United States , Franklin D. Roosevelt , History of the United States 1168 Words | 3 Pages. Since the Haitian Rebellion of 1791- 1804, Southern slave owners were in fear of a slave rebellion , especially in areas where . slaves outnumbered non-slaves. Nat Turner , also known as “Prophet,” was one of the leaders who put this into action. He was an a research paper “upper class” (knew how to research paper, read and write) slave owned by Joseph Travis of iv papers term Southampton, Virginia and was extremely religious. The unofficial religious leader of the slaves had seen a solar eclipse in econ research paper February of 1831 and library, believed that God had chosen. American Civil War , Cuba , Haiti 404 Words | 2 Pages. Thesis Statement Water pollution has had devastating effects on the environment, which include irreversible effects to the . ocean's ecosystem, health problems and abnormal conditions. Econ Research? interference of the ocean's ecosystem - Plastic storage bags can kill animals in the oceans like dolphins, turtles and whales. It is easy for wildlife to swallow and eventually causes death. * Over 1.5 billion tons of plastic water bottles end up in US landfills each year.
It takes over 300 years to degrade. Aquatic ecology , Marine pollution , Ocean 1030 Words | 3 Pages. provide a thesis statement . Typically, these two tasks should be accomplished using only one paragraph for a short paper, but can . Inductive Essay? be longer for longer papers. Research? First, introduce your topic. Iv Papers Term? The introductory paragraph(s) should briefly orient the reader to econ research, the topic and provide a conceptual map of the rest of the paper. Your thesis statement is the iv papers term, main point of your paper and should address the paper topic assigned by your instructor. Econ Paper? Second, provide a thesis statement . Your thesis statement is iv papers term, the. Paper , Paragraph , Pilcrow 896 Words | 3 Pages. What is Thesis Statement ? Thesis statement is a statement that conveys the ultimate . message, intention or the main argument of your essay. In other words, thesis statement can summarize your whole essay within a single sentence.
Your thesis statement will be enough for the examiners about which side or position you are taking in the discussion or debate. For example, in the question of “do you agree?” type, this statement will tell the econ research, reader whether you agree and to what extent. Iv Papers Term? There are chaos. 20th century , Caste , Discrimination 962 Words | 3 Pages. Frederick Turner Jackson: Frontier Thesis. Band D East to West Frederick Turner Jackson, born in econ research 1861, in Portage, Wisconsin, grew up in development coursework a time of severe social change, in paper a nation . Citing A Book A Research? plagued with an research identity crisis.
Fascinated by citing a book the world around him, Turner chose to econ paper, become a history professor, devoting his entire life to studying American culture/society while teaching at the University of Wisconsin and Harvard. Constantly having the opportunity to study and observe the within paper, development of the “American”, Turner wrote extensively, about which. Franklin D. Roosevelt , Frederick Jackson Turner , Frontier 1136 Words | 4 Pages. Thesis statements and topic sentences. ? Thesis statements and topic sentences help organize the ideas in an essay. Academic writers are expected to use . thesis statements and paper, topic sentences. Academic essays are often organized using the cuhk library thesis, following pattern: Introduction—the first paragraph of the essay. The thesis statement is usually the last sentence of the econ paper, introductory paragraph.
Body paragraphs—the paragraphs. Thesis? Each of these body paragraphs usually begins with a topic sentence. Last paragraph—Called the conclusion or concluding. Academia , Paragraph , Question 732 Words | 3 Pages. increasingly more specific information leading up to the thesis . Econ Research Paper? The Thesis Statement Must State a . Controversial Point The formulaic thesis statement unequivocally states the main controversial point of the essay and provides “a roadmap” or outline for the rest of the essay.
A disproportionate amount of time should be spent crafting the thesis statement . When the thesis statement is complete, the essay is essentially written. Development? Every thesis statement must have a controversial point, and it needs to. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Humpty Dumpty 1715 Words | 6 Pages. ? A thesis is a concise statement of econ research paper your argument, usually written in trafficking paper one sentence. It must be more than simply a restatement . of the topic you are addressing—it should let the research, reader know about the development, conclusions you have reached in the process of your reading and research paper, research. Outline Research? As Mary Lynn Rampolla writes, “A thesis is not a statement of fact, a question, or an paper opinion, although it is sometimes confused with all these things. Neither is a thesis the same as the drama coursework, topic…. A thesis informs the reader. African slave trade , Arab slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 927 Words | 3 Pages. sentences also need to paper, relate back to the thesis of the essay. The thesis statement is like a road map that will . tell the reader or listener where you are going with this information or how you are treating it. thesis Statement The thesis statement is that sentence or two in a research your text that contains the focus of your essay and tells your reader what the essay is econ, going to be about.
Although it is library thesis, certainly possible to write a good essay without a thesis statement (many narrative essays, for example. Doctor of Philosophy , Essay , Rhetoric 1509 Words | 4 Pages. Study foreign language at overseas is beneficial or not agree or disagree with extent? D?u hi?u trong d? bai: Only, the most important, some, all, . necessary, many M? d?u: NP…. Brings the econ research, negative and iv papers term, positive that lead to wide discussion. Thesis statement : Example 1 Some people believe that it is acceptable for econ paper young children to undertake jobs that they are paid for, whereas others believe that this is wrong and should be illegal. This essay will discuss both sides of the issue.
Example 2 . Acupuncture , Alternative medicine , Ayurveda 692 Words | 3 Pages. #65279; Nat Turner's Southampton Slave Revolt and How it Paved the Way for the Abolitionist and Civil Rights Movement . Nat Turner was a man with a vision that would change America forever. Library? His vision may have not sounded right to the average person but to Nat Turner , he was on Earth to realize his vision. Nat Turner is the most famous and most controversial slave rebel in American history, and he remains a storm center of research paper dispute(Fires of Jubilee author. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Nat Turner 2513 Words | 14 Pages. Thesis Driven Essay Examples Thesis : William Golding uses symbolism in the form of the conch to represents the essay, concept of . society. The boys’ evolving relationship with the conch illustrates that humans, when removed from the pressures of civilized authority, will become evil.
1st TS: In the beginning, the boys view the conch as an econ research paper important symbol that unites them and gives them the power to deal with their difficult situation. 2nd TS: Gradually, however, the conch becomes less important. Drug , Drug addiction , Gang 1195 Words | 5 Pages. Whitney Bennett Jacqueline May English Composition 1 June 20 2015 10 Thesis Statements based on development coursework . Michael Moore’s Documentary Film “Bowling for Columbine” Thesis #1: ? The United States have a higher murder rate with firearms than Canada, even though Canada have the same amount of guns as the U.S. The violent history of paper America contributes greatly in the crimes presented in our society. Response:? I agree with this because Canada has more gun control than the citing a book within a research paper, United States. Charles Manson , Marilyn Manson , Mass media 1080 Words | 5 Pages. Nat Turner’s Rebellion : A Slave Insurrection Nat Turner , a slave in Virginia, was raised by econ research his mom . and dad, with the help of his grandmother (whom he was so close to), to be a strong person. He grew up being told that he was made to citing a book within, do something special with his life. Turner once said that he communicated with the Spirit and was told that his wisdom came from God. He felt he was destined to econ paper, help slaves be free.
He would work with the iv papers term, only four people he could trust, Hark; Henry; Sam; and Nelson. English-language films , KILL , Nat Turner 484 Words | 2 Pages. Deductive Reasoning and Thesis Statement. asked to do this quite a bit in your history and civics classes as well. In most cases, you were taught to come up with a point that you intend to make, and . to put it into one sentence called the thesis statement . You would then come up with three more sentences that would support your thesis statement with three specific points. Econ? With these four ingredients, you wrote a straightforward five-paragraph essay, and hopefully got an A for your effort.
Of course, for the purposes of writing an epinion. Abductive reasoning , Deduction , Deductive reasoning 1187 Words | 4 Pages. Clarification: Automobile and Thesis Statement. is an easy trap to fall into. B. Iv Papers Term? Writing the Classification Division Essay i. Econ Paper? Writing the outline human trafficking research paper, Introduction As with any academic essay, the introduction . needs to explain the topic of the econ research, paper and provide a thesis statement . In between the introducing the topic and the thesis statement , you need to add transitional information so that the information in the introduction moves from general to citing a book, specific. Econ Research Paper? A good idea for graduate admission essay engineering transitional information is an explanation of the importance of the analysis. Automobile , Biological classification , Essay 840 Words | 3 Pages. Nat Turner Researched Essay (with Citations) Nat Turner English 10 5 March 2012 There comes a time when everyone has to choose what they want to do with their lives, and paper, . Inductive? few have done what Nat Turner has.
He led a rebellion against his slave owner and opened the door for other slaves to begin their own fight for freedom. Econ Paper? He was born a slave October 2nd, 1800 to Southampton County Virginian Benjamin Turner (“ Nat Turner ”). Citing Within A Research Paper? Turner was born into slavery by the slave of a refugee from the paper, Saint Domigue revolt and raised on the plantation of. African slave trade , Atlantic slave trade , Caribbean 634 Words | 2 Pages. Colonialism and Clear Thesis Statements. Task 3 Outline Individuals and Institutions as Mechanisms of Social Change THE BASICS * Make sure you answer each part of the iv papers term, question.
Several parts . to this task * Use clear thesis statements for research paper each part * Remember to use specific details and examples whenever you can ( look for any particular instance where you can use details Part A Choosing your example “Discuss the rise of a book within imperialism or colonialism in ONE area of the world from the econ, following list” (understand the definition. Civil disobedience , Colonialism , Constitutional monarchy 634 Words | 3 Pages. ?Potential Thesis Statements for Orwell’s “Politics and the English Language” 1. In “Politics and trafficking research, the English Language,” George . Orwell examines the cause and research paper, the effect of bad language, in literary and political writing. 2. George Orwell presents the flaws of the cuhk library, English language in his writing “Politics and the English Language.” 3. In the essay “Politics and the English Language,” George Orwell argues that the econ paper, downfall of the use of the English language in graduate admission essay help engineering politics could very well lead to econ research paper, the. British Isles , Dialect , England 1394 Words | 2 Pages. Outline and Thesis Statement Guide. ?Associate Level Material Appendix H Outline and Thesis Statement Guide Create an outline that includes details that . support your thesis . You must have at least three main points identified and at least two supporting details per main point. Write all supporting details and subdetails in complete sentences. Include both in-text citations in the outline and a references page following the a book within paper, outline. Many of your supporting details and subdetails will need in-text citations.
Outline. Child , Journalism , Media violence research 639 Words | 3 Pages. Bowling for econ research paper Columbine Thesis Statements. October 17, 2010 Bowling for Columbine Thesis Statements 1) The high casualties caused by guns are a result of how easy it . is to obtain one. If policies were made stricter, casualties would go down. I do not agree with this because it would only affect the people who go to obtain their guns legally. If you really wanted one all you would have to a book within a research paper, do is steal it, so the econ paper, policies would then have no effect on library thesis you.
2) Minorities and research, blacks are made to be scarier than they are because they. Bowling for Columbine , Charlton Heston , Crime 770 Words | 3 Pages. Com176 outline and coursework, thesis statement. ?University of Phoenix Material Outline and Thesis Statement Guide Create an outline that includes details that support . your thesis . Paper? Identify at least three main points and at least two supporting details per main point. Write all supporting details and subdetails in complete sentences. Include both in-text citations in the outline and a references page following the outline. Many of your supporting details and subdetails will need in-text citations. Outline only the body of your. Computer crime , Criminology , Federal Bureau of Investigation 1233 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction to iv papers term, the Thesis Statement : American History A thesis expresses the judgment of someone who has . thoughtfully examined a body of evidence on econ research paper a topic. It is an informed and debatable statement that is the foundation of any effective expository writing or research project.
A thesis statement makes a claim or expresses a point of view that others might disagree with. Thesis statement = topic + debatable point of view (based on evidence) A five-point scale is often used in social research. Abolitionism , Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome 567 Words | 3 Pages. strong thesis statement ! What is a thesis statement ? ? ? It is usually a single sentence at the end . of your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the iv papers term, body of the research, essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation. The thesis statement is the “road map” of your paper, directing you as you write it and guiding the reader through it. Do ? ? ? ? Don’t ? ? ? ? Know your essay’s type. Make a statement . Make. American Civil War , Essay , Question 467 Words | 2 Pages.
TESOL Thesis Statement TESOL ESL THESIS TOPIC China has arisen in a book a research paper all perspectives of the twenty-first . century. Parents in econ research paper China play crucial roles of children learning and they are now more concern about the English ability their children have enhanced which means teacher must pay greater attention to graduate admission, the communication between parents and teacher and the challenge it brings. Econ Research? Thesis Closed policy The closed policy has created difficulties, for Chinese students in methods of learning. Culture , Education , Educational psychology 805 Words | 3 Pages. ?University of Phoenix Material Outline and Thesis Statement Guide Create an outline that includes details that support . your thesis . Identify at least three main points and at least two supporting details per main point. Write all supporting details and sub details in complete sentences. Include both in-text citations in the outline and drama coursework, a references page following the outline. Many of econ research your supporting details and sub details will need in-text citations. Inductive Essay? Outline only the body of econ your. Breast , Breast cancer , Cancer 829 Words | 3 Pages.
Thesis Statement And Annotated Bibliography. ? Thesis Statement and Annotated Bibliography Chris Fortin Western Governors University Student ID# 000053762 . Thesis Statement While some studies show that coffee consumption may be harmful, research shows the benefits outweigh the risks because it can prevent certain cancers, diseases such as Parkinson’s, reduce suicide risk and it contains significant antioxidants. Annotated Bibliography American Academy of Neurology (AAN). (2012, August 1). Coffee may. Caffeine , Cancer , Coffee 2454 Words | 14 Pages.
Indigenous Peoples of the Americas and Thesis Statement. Cattle ranches become a profitable business and beef becomes a major American food source. Intended: Europeans intended to raise cattle in the New World . to supplement native sources of library meat. Econ Paper? Conduct Research, Choose a Topic, and Write a Thesis Statement Conduct some online exploration to find more consequences of the Columbian Exchange, and iv papers term, decide whether they are intended or unintended. Choose one unintended consequence that you found or one of the research paper, examples listed above and do in-depth research. Africa , Americas , Atlantic slave trade 841 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Thesis I. WHAT IS A THESIS ? What is a thesis ? The thesis is the controlling idea around which . you construct the rest of your paper. In a history paper, the thesis generally explains why or how something happened.
Every word of inductive format your paper should support your thesis . Information you do not directly relate to paper, your thesis will appear irrelevant. This means, of course, that in a paper with a weak or no thesis , much of the paper will appear to be irrelevant and unguided. How do I present the thesis. Answer , Predicate , Primary source 872 Words | 2 Pages. Introduction to Nat Turner Around 1790, there were 700,000 slaves in the United States.
And by 1860, the graduate, number of . slaves moved up to 4 million (lecture). The reason why the numbers had changed so drastically was because of the econ research, cotton boom. The cotton growing was concentrated on plantations rather than the small farms. Around 75% of slaves lived in groups of around 10 or more slaves, which made changes in the African American slave communities and culture (lecture). With the slave communities.
African slave trade , Arab slave trade , Atlantic slave trade 822 Words | 2 Pages. Political Dynasty - Thesis Statement. JFMCG Thesis Statement : In the graduate essay engineering, Philippines, there are many elected officials that come from the same family. This has been . Econ Paper? referred to as political dynasty. This paper seeks to investigate why political dynasties exist, what are the a research paper, negative and positive effects to the country, and econ, what can be done to inductive, educate the voters. Political dynasties should be banned in certain branches of the government to enhance equal access to political opportunities and to widen the research, base for the selection.
Dynasty , Elections , Initiative 1059 Words | 5 Pages.
How to buy essay cheap with no worries -
Data, Research Resources, & Blogs | Economics - Williams College
Number-Crunching at the EIS and Why Public Health is econ paper, Politics. Mark Pendergrast writes: Thanks to commentators Liz Borkowski, Karen Starko, Steve Schoenbaum, and Mark Rosenberg for their thoughtful posts, though it appears that Mark Rosenberg’s post got cut off after his first-paragraph query asking why anyone would go into the field of public health. I will wait to respond to his post once I see him answer his own question! In the admission help, meantime, there is much to research paper, talk about. I (Mark Pendergrast) will respond to parts of what Liz, Karen, and Steve wrote in order, along with other blogger comments.
Let me respond first to a blog comment from John Willis, who wrote: “This sounds like the basis for the show Medical Investigation , which is cuhk library, just the research paper, kind of superhero style TV show about the CDC that you imagine. I thought when I watched the show that it was far-fetched – a kind of House for epidemiologists with as much connection to the real world of outbreak investigation as House does to internal medicine – but perhaps I judged it too soon.” Well, Inside the Outbreaks has indeed been optioned for a television series, though that apparently doesn’t mean that it will necessarily happen. Human Trafficking Paper! I watched a few episodes of the short-lived Medical Investigation and was disappointed in research the show, since it was, as Willis thought, pretty unrealistic. In fact, the Epidemic Intelligence Service folks told me that at first they were distressed that (for unknown reasons) the TV show placed the essay format, EIS-type officers at the National Institutes of econ research, Health instead of the CDC. But when they saw the inductive essay, show, they were relieved. My main problem with Medical Investigation was that they often presented the epidemiologists as superhero clinicians who were actively caring for the patients. While some EIS officers have helped to care for patients during the course of an investigation, that isn’t their job, and econ research, it is rare. The super-hero cover of Inside the Outbreaks is misleading as well, showing a Clark Kent/Superman look-alike dressed in a lab coat, triumphantly holding up a test tube in a Eureka moment.
That too rarely happens, since most EIS officers do not do lab work. In fact, if they had shown a realistic cover, it would have perhaps featured a photo such as this picture of human trafficking research, Brad Hersh during a 1991 measles outbreak in econ paper Colorado. He stayed up most of the night crunching data in his lonely motel room, with papers spread all over the bed. As mundane as that sounds, such number-crunching (“grunt work,” as Liz puts it) lies at the heart of disease detection and epidemiology in general, and it often is quite urgent and dramatic, as Karen points out essay, – it can mean life or death for someone you have never met. Research! Take, for instance, the story of E-Ferol. Here is an excerpt from Inside the outline human paper, Outbreaks : In March 1984, an Ohio hospital notified the CDC that three premature babies had yellow skin, bloated stomachs, low platelet counts, enlarged livers, and kidney failure. Two had died. Despite extensive testing, no infectious cause could be found.
Then a Tennessee hospital notified the CDC of a similar outbreak in its neonatal intensive care unit. Three of the eight premature babies had died. Walter Williams, a recent EIS graduate, was dispatched on April 3. At the Tennessee hospital, Williams pored over econ, the premature babies’ charts. Development! Working 18-hour days, he finally found what he was looking for. All of the sick infants had received a new intravenous vitamin E preparation called E-Ferol.
Born with low vitamin E levels, premies had traditionally received supplements by intramuscular injection. Econ! E-Ferol, licensed in December 1983, allowed easier administration through an IV tube. Williams notified EIS officer Bob Gaynes, who was still working the Ohio cases, in which he soon found an association with E-Ferol. A few days later, a third hospital called the CDC from Spokane, Washington, to say that four premature babies had died there. They too had been given E-Ferol.
A national recall halted the cuhk, epidemic. The FDA had approved E-Ferol without testing because its constituents were similar to other harmless products. “The pharmaceutical industry and federal regulatory agencies should give special consideration to evaluating the safety of new medications that will be used to treat infants,” Williams and research paper, Gaynes wrote in their paper on the outbreak. You can see how urgent this matter was, but Walter Williams solved it by iv papers term, painstakingly compiling notes from hospital charts. One of the problems I had with writing this history of the research, EIS was space. Admission Essay Help Engineering! I simply didn’t have room for so many personal quotes and research paper, observations.
Here is essay, what Williams told me: “I found the econ research paper, answer late at night, in a room with no windows. My eyes were gritty. A Book Within Paper! Every night had been that way. I called my supervisor at CDC that night, then redid the calculations back in my hotel room. I had a programmable calculator made by Texas Instruments, which had a card reader, but it wasn’t working. So I had to plug in the numbers for econ research it. It didn’t look right to me. When I did it the last time and confirmed all numbers, the thesis, statistical significance was very high.
It was this product and nothing else.” So there are indeed plenty of Eureka moments for disease detectives. Liz wrote that EIS officers are “often young and willing to take risks.” True. When the program began in 1951, most were in research their late twenties. A Book Within! Nowadays they are more likely to research, be in their mid-thirties, but many do appear to have a “certain immortality complex,” as EIS alum Jim Gale put it in the book (he was talking about jumping into a grave to take a sample from essay format, someone who had died of a particularly virulent plague bacillus). Research Paper! Although quite a few EIS officers have caught the diseases they were investigating, only iv papers term one EIS officer has died in econ the line of duty, and that was Paul Schnitker, who died in 1969 as his airplane blew up while approaching Nigeria, probably from a terrorist bomb in graduate admission essay help engineering luggage. I recently had dinner with John Schnitker, Paul’s brother, in Washington, DC, where he works for the State Department. There is a Schnitker award given each year to an EIS officer who has made a major contribution in international health. Paper! John told me that he has kept tabs not only on the accomplishments of iv papers term, each winner, but the nominees, and he is continually amazed at what EIS officers have done. Near the end of her post, Liz quoted the beginning of research, my section on Karen Starko’s Reye syndrome investigation, which was particularly nice, since Karen turned out to be the a research, first EIS alum to chime in econ research here. And Liz concluded: “ Inside the Outbreaks does a great job celebrating the combination of heroic and mundane work that goes into identifying and preventing disease. Iv Papers Term! It’s also a great way to learn about epidemiology and why it’s so important.”
I certainly agree, but I wanted to point out econ paper, something else about that Reye syndrome affair that is citing a book a research paper, frustrating. Although Karen’s and subsequent CDC studies clearly demonstrated that giving children aspirin caused the vast majority of econ research, Reye syndrome cases, the CDC has no regulatory power. The FDA gave in to engineering, pressure from the aspirin industry and delayed a warning label on paper children’s medicine containing aspirin for five years, during which nearly 300 more children died of Reye syndrome in outline research paper the United States. Here is that section, followed by a cartoon from the paper, book: The aspirin industry demanded more studies and successfully delayed a warning label on iv papers term salicylate-containing medication until 1986. From 1981 through 1985, over econ research, a thousand U. A Book Within Paper! S. Econ! children contracted Reye’s syndrome, with 291 deaths. Citing A Book Within Paper! Up to a third of the survivors probably suffered permanent brain damage. Publicity about the econ, hazards of aspirin, including that generated by the EIS officers, gradually reduced its use for children, so that Reye’s cases in the United States fell from a peak of a book within paper, 555 in 1980 to 36 in 1987, and finally to just two cases in 1997, by which time most children’s medication no longer contained aspirin.
So let me throw out econ research paper, a question to readers. Should the CDC have regulatory power? That would mean that those responsible for investigations would also be responsible for graduate essay engineering regulations, which might lead to conflicts of interest. That issue arose over whether the CDC should not only paper advise on vaccine administration but should also investigate adverse reactions to vaccines. Some argued that this was like letting the drama development coursework, airlines run the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration.) I don’t have much to add to Karen’s post on the importance of the case study method. Research! Amen! In July 2005 I sat in on inductive most of the EIS training, and it was the afternoon case studies that really had an impact. The new officers were fed information a little at a time, then asked for conclusions. It really made everyone think so hard that I could practically see the smoke was coming out of their ears.
I must admit that I hope Inside the Outbreaks will be picked up as a supplementary textbook by universities and schools of public health to be used as a treasure trove of such case studies, or at least as the basis of econ research paper, intense discussion. Steve Schoenbaum observed that the 2 x 2 table (who ate or didn’t eat? Who got sick and who didn’t) lies at the heart of epidemiological investigations. “The method may sound simple, but there are several varieties of epidemiologic studies – the inductive essay format, book predominantly mentions cohort and case-control – and research paper, one can spend a lifetime coming to development, an understanding of how best to use epidemiologic methods to address important issues.” That is certainly true, and even after five years of researching and writing about the EIS, I am certainly no expert on it all. But it might be worthwhile to discuss the difference between cohort studies and research, case control studies, if anyone wants to take that on. I would be willing to give my short version to kick it off. Steve also observes: “It was beginning to dawn on me that my work and experiences as an essay, epidemiologist were informing my management career. Indeed, I believe that most epidemiologic projects require developing and managing teams – a theme that is nicely and plentifully illustrated in Inside the Outbreaks .” That’s an interesting and important point.
I was afraid, in paper writing the book, that it would make it sound as if EIS officers came in like the citing, Lone Ranger and solved everything alone. Econ! Instead, they have to paper, function as members of a team. They must be culturally sensitive, establishing good working relationships quickly. That doesn’t always happen, of course, and some state health departments resisted calling “Langmuir’s storm troopers,” as one famously put it. By and large, though, EIS officers learn a great deal about econ research paper, management skills by engineering, necessity. “Translating epidemiologic information into action” is, as Steve notes, the heart of the enterprise. Yes, you need to conduct surveillance, to find baseline data. You need to trace epidemic curves, to figure out how the disease was transmitted. Econ! But then you have to make recommendations about stopping it in its tracks, if possible.
As I pointed out in the concluding chapters of the book, that becomes more and more difficult when you are dealing not just with microbes, but with human behavior, which is iv papers term, a good deal more difficult to combat or modify. That, too, is another good discussion-starter. Steve makes another invaluable point. “CDC programs and thus the econ research paper, experiences of EIS officers have certainly been affected by development, higher level decisions.” That’s putting it mildly! Here’s a funny story. Econ Paper! I want to speak to Rotary Clubs about the book, since they are such strong and important supporters of polio eradication, one of the things I wrote about. But when I called a local Rotary Club in the Atlanta area, the president said, “We usually have political speakers,” and he declined. Essay! I tried to explain that public health is politics, and econ research paper, some of the most important (and frustrating) politics you can encounter. Iv Papers Term! Comments and specific examples, folks? Fenerbahce’nin golcu ismi Alex icin Super Lig’de bugun Kardemir Karabukspor ile oynayacaklar? mac ayr? bir onem tas?yor. Gaziantepspor’a att?g? golle ligde 100’ler kulubune giren Brezilyal? y?ld?z, Bucaspor mac?nda da tak?m?n?n lig tarihindeki 3000. golune imza atm?st?.
Alex, Karabuk onunde ise koleksiyonuna yeni bir parca daha eklemeye haz?rlan?yor. Ligde Sar?-Lacivertli ekibin d?s?nda yer alan 17 tak?m?n 16’s?na bu sezon veya daha onceki sezonlardan en az 1 golu bulunan Sambac?, Karabukspor’a kars? ilk kez sahaya c?kacag? macta ilk golune ulasmay? hedefliyor. Alex, Fenerbahce formas?n? giydigi bundan onceki 6 sezonda Karabukspor Super Lig’de yer alamad?g? icin rakipleriyle kars?lasma imkan? bulamam?st?. 7. Econ! sezonunu gecirdigi Turkiye’de ligde en cok golu Genclerbirligi filelerine (9 gol) gonderen Brezilyal? futbolcu, Ankaraspor’a 8, Gaziantepspor ve Ankaragucu’ne de 7’ser gol att?. Drama Coursework! Fenerbahce’nin ilk yabanc? gol kral? olan, bu sezon da gol krall?g? yar?s?nda Karabuksporlu Emenike ile birlikte 10 gol ile zirvede bulunan Alex’in, ligde att?g? toplam gol say?s? da 104’u buldu.
Bu arada, Kardemir Karabuk-spor ile sahas?nda kars?lasacak olan Fenerbahce, bu sezon Istanbul’da yapt?g? lig maclar?nda henuz yenilgi yuzu gormedi. Paper! Istanbul’da 6 mac?n? farkl? skorlarla kazanan Fenerbahce, Buyuksehir Belediyespor’u 1-0 yenerken, sadece ezeli rakipleri Galatasaray ve Besiktas ile berabere kald?. Citing A Research! Istanbul’daki 9 macta rakip filelere 28 gol atan Sar?-Lacivertliler, Istanbul d?s?nda yapt?g? 5 lig mac?nda 8 gol atabildi. Fenerbahce’de Karabukspor mac? oncesi Emre, Caner ve Gokhan Gonul sar? kart ceza s?n?r?nda bulunuyor. Research! Ligde 3’er sar? kart? bulunan Emre, Caner ve Gokhan sar? kart gordugu takdirde cezal? duruma dusecek ve ligin 16. haftas?nda yap?lacak Ankaragucu mac?nda forma giyemeyecek. Ote yandan Fenerbahce, Karabukspor’un golcu oyuncusu Emenike ile ilgili transfer girisimlerinin olmad?g?n? ac?klad?. yaz? icin tesekkurler. ozellikle karikatur cok hos. You need to trace epidemic curves, to figure out how the disease was transmitted. But then you have to make recommendations about stopping it in its tracks, if possible. As I pointed out in the concluding chapters of the book, that becomes more and more difficult when you are dealing not just with microbes, but with human behavior, which is inductive format, a good deal more difficult to research paper, combat or modify. You need to trace epidemic curves, to figure out how the disease was transmitted.
But then you have to make recommendations about stopping it in iv papers term its tracks, if possible. As I pointed out in econ paper the concluding chapters of the book, that becomes more and cuhk library thesis, more difficult when you are dealing not just with microbes, but with human behavior, which is a good deal more difficult to combat or modify. Gaziantepspor’a att?g? golle ligde 100’ler kulubune giren Brezilyal? y?ld?z, Bucaspor mac?nda da tak?m?n?n lig tarihindeki 3000. Econ Research Paper! golune imza atm?st?. Alex, Karabuk onunde ise koleksiyonuna yeni bir parca daha eklemeye haz?rlan?yor. That would mean that those responsible for investigations would also be responsible for regulations, which might lead to thesis, conflicts of interest.
That issue arose over whether the CDC should not only econ research advise on human vaccine administration but should also investigate adverse reactions to vaccines. “Pay yourself first” is the first rule of personal financial planning. Although planners and credit counselors say a lot of things about a lot of subjects after that, a good argument can be made that the second rule of personal financial planning is “Reduce debt.” Karabuk-spor ile sahas?nda kars?lasacak olan Fenerbahce, bu sezon Istanbul’da yapt?g? lig maclar?nda henuz yenilgi yuzu gormedi. Research! Istanbul’da 6 mac?n? farkl? skorlarla kazanan Fenerbahce, Buyuksehir Belediyespor’u 1-0 yenerken. Hello! Someone in my Myspace group shared this website with us so I came to essay format, take a look. I’m definitely loving the information. I’m bookmarking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Wonderful blog and econ paper, fantastic style and citing a research, design. thanks for That would mean that those responsible for investigations would also be responsible for paper regulations.
Some websites offer essays. Graduate Engineering! Such services are acknowledged that students in need want to econ, Buy Book Reports because they don’t have time to write essay papers themselves. The term paper performing will not always be a kind of fun. Essay Format! The university essay writing could cost a lot of time and efforts. Wise people would suggest to buy academic paper. I do guess that this can be the right way. New comments have been temporarily disabled. Please check back soon. Mark Pendergrast wraps up the econ research, Inside the Outbreaks Book Club. Mark Pendergrast writes: It’s time to graduate admission, wrap up this ScienceBlog Book Club on my book, ENVY OF PUMP HANDLE REMOVERS AND EVENTUAL GRATIFICATION.
In this post I want to address disease control opportunities for research EIS officers, many of which Is Bioterrorism the Most Terrifying Public Health Problem? Mark Pendergrast writes: Instead of responding to last week’s commentaries on graduate admission this book club blog A Few Questions and econ research paper, Answers on Reye’s Sydrome. Karen Starko writes: Several basic questions related to Reye’s syndrome (RS) have come to me from
Congress, Federal Agencies, and Public Health. Liz Borkowski writes: I wrote last week about how federal agencies can solve the problems that
Write My Research Paper -
Research paper topics about Economics | Online Research Library
60s music essay 0 , 1 , alrasesepa 6 , 14 . Music In The 60S Essay Help. Essay on Music Of The 60s #8212; essays research papers Essay on Music Of The 60s . No Works Cited Length: 1357 words (3.9 double-spaced pages) Rating: Purple Open Document Example research essay topic Music Of The 60s #8212; EssayChief.com research essay sample on music of the 60s custom essay writing folk music , music , music styles, pop music , popular music , rock music , woodstock music . Revolution of research music in the 1960s Essay #8212; 1646 Words | Bartleby Music has continued to change throughout each decade, but the iv papers term, 1960s was the The Influence of Protest Music during the 1960#039;s And Beyond Essay examples . Econ Paper! The Sixties and Protest Music | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of By 1969 Darin, in a leather jacket with buckskin fringe, was writing songs of that summarized the anti-war music and human research paper movements of the 1960s and econ paper beyond. Black Soul Of The 1960s Music Essay #8212; UK Essays 23 Mar 2015 In the early 1960s before the iv papers term, British invasion black soul music , Doo wop, This is research, not an example of the work written by our professional essay A BRIEF HISTORY OF POP AND ROCK MUSIC IN THE 1960#039;S Essay by Jack Madani Eventually rock artists came to be expected to citing a research paper write and even produce their own songs , becoming responsible for everything about how their records In general there were four main pockets of early 60#039;s pop:. Music of the econ research, Past vs Today#039;s Music | Teen Opinion Essay #8212; Teen Ink Go back in time a few decades, to the 60s , 70s, and 80s. Outline! some artists to try and expand their music into more than just one topic of “love”, and try writing a song 1960s Essay Examples | Kibin Wrong, the music of the 1960s was a message of econ protest, hope and open-mindedness. The music of cuhk thesis this decade not only research paper, spoke for a culture but a lifestyle. Rock Introductory Essay Rock . Introductory Essay . Charles F. McGovern, Associate Professor of American Studies and help engineering History, of econ research musical groups plugged in and began writing their own songs . The rock music of the 1960s often challenged political authority.
Analytical Essay #2 | The British Invasion However, one of the within, huge anti-war songs during the 60#039;s surprisingly wasn#039;t a rock in many other contexts as well, as the many verses span a variety of topics . Bob Dylan: An Impact on American Society in research, #8212; Dartmouth College. 10 Apr 2001 The 1960s was a decade of liberation for music , public opinion, dance influenced Dylan to write music that would in turn evoke changes within . Human! write . I just react and research paper put it down on paper …what comes out in admission engineering, my music BBC NEWS | Americas | Vietnam: The music of econ paper protest 1 May 2005 Skip to graduate main content Access keys help And songs were an important part of that protest. In the early 1960s , the folk- song movement was already well-established with artists like Joan Baez and Bob Dylan reaching a 1960s Folk- Rock Overview #8212; Richie Unterberger 1960s Folk- Rock Overview. This essay appears in theAll Music Guide. In the early 1960s , any suggestion that the folk and research paper rock #039;n#039;roll worlds would intertwine were already addressing more personal concerns on the mid-1965 tunes Help American popular music #8212; Wikipedia The field of pop music developed tremendously during this period, as the increasingly low price of recorded music The era of the trafficking research paper, modern teen pop star, however, began in the 1960s . See media help . Is the Music of the 1960s Really the Best Ever? | HuffPost 3 Apr 2013 The #039; 60s witnessed an unparalleled burst of musical creativity, ranging from cassette tapes, for example — made #039; 60s music more available. The Beatles and econ Their Influence on Culture #8212; IS MU When I was thinking about what to write about society in the 1960s (which is, of .. Even though the inductive essay, Beatles#039; music is not the primary topic of this essay , I find it. Research! MUSS2725 Music , Culture, Politics: the Sixties #8212; Leeds for inductive Life This module will look at econ paper the music , culture, politics, and art of one of the most demonstrate the outline human research paper, development of econ paper research and essay - writing skills; #8212; develop an Beatlemania: The Defiance of a Generation | PopMatters 11 Nov 2009 By the outline human trafficking research, #039; 60s both teenage culture and rock music were in their second coming. By writing the econ paper, music themselves, the band was able to admission essay capture 79.02.03: Student Protest in the 1960s About mid- 60s rock dominated the scene with bands such as Jefferson .. of King with those of Malcolm X, students write essay supporting one or the other. 5. The Importance of Reggae Music in the Worldwide Cultural Universe When reggae emerged in the late 1960s , it came as a cultural bombshell not only to Africa, Alpha Blondy, Tiken Jah Fakoly and Lucky Dube being perfect examples . Thus, my paper will examine the impact of Jamaican reggae music on the The British Invasion: From the Beatles to the Stones, The Sixties 14 Jul 1988 It#039;s also plausible that the Beatles stood so far above the musical Nobody could sing and nobody could write , he said, and in any case, Music in econ, the Civil Rights Movement #8212; Civil Rights History Project.
African American spirituals, gospel, and folk music all played an outline human research important role a piece of econ paper paper that said, #039;They#039;ve found the bodies of Goodman, Schwerner, Paper 14: Musical Countercultures of the cuhk thesis, 1960s — Faculty of Music Paper 14: Musical Countercultures of the 1960s musicology and issues of historiography in econ research, the twentieth-century, the following topics will be covered in detail: Rock Music Research Essay Topics | Study.com Research two commercial rock bands of the 1960s such as the Rolling Stones and the Beatles. Outline Research Paper! Write and research essay comparing and contrasting their musical style Analyse the nature and cuhk thesis extent of social and cultural transformations The 1960s were a time of great social and econ paper moral change throughout Britain. I will be exploring these topics further in the course of this essay and . Based on the blues music of America that many British soldiers were exposed to during Songs of the Civil Rights Movement #8212; AXS 18 Jan 2016 Until the early 60s the song was mostly performed in the white southern folk style. John Coltrane was moved to write “Alabama” after the Sixteenth Street .. Thanks to Brian Ward#039;s essay “People Get Ready”: Music and the The Vietnam Conflict: The Rock #039;n#039; Roll War | Paola Sarappa | Blog 18 Aug 2011 Also, some phrases were used in the context of the inductive essay, war. For example “ Rock -and-roll” was used for “lock and load”, referring to the procedure for Protest and Rock n#039; Roll During the econ research paper, Vietnam War #8212; Inquiries Journal In the 1960s , several now-influential artists appealed to the disaffected counterculture#039;s emphasis on drama development, peace and love, especially with the sliding approval rates Culture in The 1960s #8212; Shmoop The #039; 60s . Bell-bottoms and incense, long hair, free love and research paper psychedelic rock —the 1960s are commonly reduced to a set of library easy-to-replicate images, phrases, British Invasion | Origins, Groups, Facts | Britannica.com 18 Aug 2017 British Invasion, musical movement of the mid- 1960s composed of British began performing and writing up-tempo melodic pop, fiery rock and. .
Write my Paper for Cheap in High Quality -
Research Papers in Economics - Wikipedia
Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and invasive winter annual production in research paper, California deserts. Primary production in deserts is limited by soil moisture and N availability, and thus is likely to be influenced by both anthropogenic N deposition and precipitation regimes altered as a consequence of climate change. Invasive annual grasses are particularly responsive to increases in development coursework, N and water availabilities, which may result in competition with native forb communities. Additionally, conditions favoring increased invasive grass production in arid and semi-arid regions can increase fire risk, negatively impacting woody vegetation that is econ research not adapted to fire. We conducted a seeded garden experiment and admission engineering a 5-year field fertilization experiment to investigate how winter annual production is paper altered by increasing N supply under a range of water availabilities.
The greatest production of invasive grasses and native forbs in the garden experiment occurred under the highest soil N (inorganic N after fertilization = 2.99 g m ?2 ) and highest watering regime, indicating these species are limited by cuhk library both water and N. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis on the multi-year field fertilization study showed that winter annual biomass was primarily limited by November–December precipitation. Biomass exceeded the threshold capable of carrying fire when inorganic soil N availability was at least 3.2 g m ?2 in pinon-juniper woodland. Due to water limitation in creosote bush scrub, biomass exceeded the fire threshold only under very wet conditions regardless of soil N status. The CART analyses also revealed that percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs is primarily dependent on the timing and amount of econ paper, precipitation and secondarily dependent on soil N and site-specific characteristics. Format! In total, our results indicate that areas of high N deposition will be susceptible to grass invasion, particularly in wet years, potentially reducing native species cover and research increasing the risk of fire. Communicated by graduate admission help engineering Louis Pitelka. Electronic supplementary material.
The online version of paper, this article (doi: 10.1007/s00442-009-1516-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Climate change models indicate that many regions will experience an increase in library thesis, the severity of extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and floods (Solomon et al. 2007 ). These climate changes will cause vegetation distributions to shift, such as in econ research, California where the inductive extent of research, arid grasslands is predicted to increase due in part to increased fire size and paper frequency (Lenihan et al. 2003 ). Econ Paper! Many studies from arid and semi-arid regions have shown a linkage between climate and fire (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Harris et al. 2008 ; Drury and Veblen 2008 ; Miller et al. Graduate Help! 2009 ). Fire may also be promoted by econ paper invasions of non-native species (D’Antonio and Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ), which themselves are associated with increased disturbance, including climate change, land use change, and N deposition (Dukes and graduate essay Mooney 1999 ). In western North America, invasion by non-native grasses has resulted in increased fire frequency and intensity (Zouhar et al.
2008 ). This so called “grass-fire cycle” occurs because the invasive grasses create a persistent and continuous fine fuel load that allows fire to carry between widely spaced shrubs (D’Antonio and econ research paper Vitousek 1992 ; Brooks et al. 2004 ). The invasive grasses recover more quickly than shrubs, increasing fire frequency until the shrubs are lost from the landscape. Cuhk! This type-conversion has occurred in research paper, several ecosystems including sagebrush, coastal sage scrub, and creosote bush scrub (Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Menakis et al. 2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Zouhar et al. Drama! 2008 ). An increase in fire size and frequency has been observed in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts resulting in reduced shrub density and diversity (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and econ research paper Berry 2006 ; Hereford et al. 2006 ). Fires in these deserts often occur in years with below-average precipitation but that are preceded by outline human research 1–2 years of above-average rainfall (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grissino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000 ; Lenihan et al.
2003 ; Brooks and Matchett 2006 ). The years of research, high rainfall result in graduate essay help, high production by native and invasive annuals thereby increasing the fine fuel load (Brown and econ paper Minnich 1986 ). Drama Development! Arid land winter annuals have also been found to be sensitive to within-season precipitation timing, which differentially affects germination of invasive grasses and native forb species (Beatley 1974 ; Brooks 1999 ; Lundholm and research Larson 2004 ; Sher et al. 2004 ). While several large native annuals produce persistent fuel beds (Minnich 2008 ), the fuel components of greatest concern are invasive annual grasses red brome ( Bromus madritensis ), cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum ), and Mediterranean split grass ( Schismus barbatus and a book a research paper Schismus arabicus ) that may increase in productivity in years of high rainfall (Brooks 1999 ; Brooks 2003 ; Salo 2004 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). No threshold of fine fuels has been determined for desert biomass, although thresholds for fine fuels needed in grass-dominated systems are estimated to be 70–150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and research paper Hamilton 1993 ; Fenn et al. Drama Coursework! 2003a ). In the econ paper desert this range is more likely to be reached under high invasive grass abundance because grass litter does not disarticulate as rapidly as native forb litter (Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Drama Coursework! Additionally, invasive grasses are responsive to both increased precipitation and research paper increased N availability (Monaco et al. Iv Papers Term! 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003a ; Salo et al. 2005 ).
After precipitation, N is considered most limiting to plant production in arid and semi-arid regions (Hooper and Johnson 1999 ). In arid regions downwind of major urban or agricultural centers, dry N deposition is econ research increasing and is likely influencing plant communities through fertilization effects (Brooks 2003 ; Fenn et al. 2003b ; Allen et al. 2009 ; Rao et al. 2009 ). The co-limitation of production by N and water suggests that the build-up of fine fuels sufficient to cuhk thesis, carry wildfires would most likely occur when both N deposition and above-average precipitation are present. Thus, the hypothesis addressed by this study is: N and precipitation interact such that the biomass produced by annual vegetation exceeds the fire threshold more frequently under N deposition. Econ! We tested the graduate admission help hypothesis using a seeded garden experiment and a multi-year (2004–2008) field fertilization of natural vegetation to econ, evaluate the interactions between N fertilization and water availability on biomass production. By using classification and citing a research regression tree analysis (CART) on the long-term fertilization experiment results, we were able to examine the data for thresholds of soil N and consider the implications of uncertainty regarding fine fuel thresholds. Additionally, we examined the econ research response of total annual production, native forb cover, and invasive forb cover to changes in precipitation timing to better determine the inductive format effects of within-season precipitation variability on econ research production and winter annual community composition. General soil characteristics for the garden and field fertilization of natural vegetation experiments.
Rock and gravel (%) Total soil N (g m ?2 ) Extractable P (ppm) a. Bulk density (g cm ?3 ) N deposition (kg ha ?1 ) b. Joshua Tree National Park. Means presented with SEs in parentheses where available. Citing A Book A Research Paper! PJ Pinon-juniper woodland, CB creosote bush. NA not applicable. a Olsen-P extraction method. b Total wet + dry N deposition measured in 2005 using throughfall and interspace bulk resin collectors (M.
Fenn, personal communication) c Gravel only, rocks 2 cm excluded during sample collection. There were five replicates of each water treatment, for econ research paper a total of fifteen 1.7 ? 2.5-m plots that were subdivided into within a research, six 0.65 ? 0.6-m subplots with a 20-cm buffer around each subplot. Three subplots were planted with A. Econ! tessellata and three subplots with B. madritensis in a randomized manner, with each species fertilized with either 0.5, 3.0 g N m ?2 , or left unfertilized as a control. Fertilizer additions were chosen to be comparable to the JTNP field fertilization experiment. We took one 8-cm-deep soil core from each subplot prior to fertilization for extraction with 1 M KCl and colorimetric determination of NO 3 ? and NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments, Tarrytown, NY). After the iv papers term first rain and before seed planting, N fertilizer was added as granular NH 4 NO 3 . We collected seeds from multiple areas within JTNP where both species were abundant.
Within 1 week of the first rain seeds were planted to achieve a density of 150 plants m ?2 . After establishment, average densities were 110 and 29 plants m ?2 for B. madritensis and A. tessellata respectively, which were within observed field densities (Hunter 1991 ). All plants that germinated naturally from the seed bank (primarily Pectocarya sp., Schismus sp., and Erodium cicutarium ) were removed by hand-weeding. Our three water treatments included low (or drought), intermediate (or average precipitation), and high rain. Econ Paper! The drought precipitation regime was achieved by installing rainout shelters that were modeled after the design by Yahdjian and format Sala ( 2002 ) and constructed to intercept 80% of incident precipitation. Shelter roofs were constructed from strips of clear corrugated plastic and econ paper were removable in iv papers term, order to econ, reduce shading of treated and cuhk thesis nearby plots. We installed 25-cm-deep plastic lined trenches around the plot perimeter to prevent movement of water into research, the plot. A gutter collected rainwater and channeled the water to a 38-l storage unit. Collected rainwater was applied to the high-rainfall plots, which were also trenched and lined to essay format, prevent movement of paper, water out of the plot. All plots contained ECH 2 O volumetric soil water sensors (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA) that were field calibrated by relating actual volumetric water content to sensor millivolt readings.
Rainout shelter roofs were not installed on the shelters until the seedlings established, and cuhk thesis the threat of econ, a storm was imminent. Only one storm occurred after establishment and so the rainout shelter roofs were used for graduate help a total of research, 1 week. Because of a lack of rain during the late winter and trafficking paper early spring, water was added to the intermediate and high-rainfall plots. Paper! Yucca Valley tap water was used to water the a research plots and contained 3.5 mg NO 3 ? l ?1 with non-detectable amounts of NH 4 + . Intermediate rain plots received three applications of water equivalent to 0.25 cm of precipitation per econ research, application and high-rainfall plots received six applications of 0.84 cm of water. In total, the plots received 16, 11, and 9 cm of natural + artificial precipitation in the high-, intermediate-, and low-water treatment plots, compared to the 70 year mean ± SD of 10 ± 8 cm of winter precipitation as determined from a nearby weather station. We harvested eight individual B. madritensis plants from each subplot 4 times throughout the spring (Online resource 1). Because of the small number of A. tessellata that germinated, an allometric relationship between plant width and height and outline research paper plant weight was developed for paper each harvest period using a total of drama, 15 individuals. The harvest-period specific allometric equations were used to paper, calculate the weight of human, eight individuals from econ each treatment for which height and width were measured. At the final sampling eight individual A. tessellata plants were harvested from each subplot. All plants were oven dried at 60°C to constant mass and weighed.
Flowers or seed heads from red brome were counted and weighed separately from the inductive essay shoots. The average shoot biomass from the eight individuals harvested from each subplot was used as one data point in econ paper, subsequent analyses. Field fertilization of essay, natural vegetation. We established fertilization plots at four sites within JNTP. Two sites were in creosote bush (CB) scrub located in the lower elevation Sonoran Desert (33°49?52.2?N, 115°45?26.6?W; 33°56?36.5?N, 116°23?44.3?W). The other two sites were pinon-juniper woodland (PJ) in the higher elevation Mojave Desert (34°2?13?N, 116°4?29.6?W; 34°0?48.7?N, 116°18?39.9?W).
In each vegetation type one site was located on the western edge of the paper park, which was subjected to high levels of N deposition (high N), and one site was located in the interior of the park where there were low levels of N deposition (low N; Allen et al. Citing Paper! 2009 ). Selected site characteristics are listed in econ, Table 1 and site-specific vegetation data are in Allen et al. ( 2009 ), with general descriptions in Keeler-Wolfe ( 2007 ) and graduate engineering Schoenherr and Burk ( 2007 ). The dominant shrub at the CB sites was Larrea tridentata with an understory of native forbs and invasive annual grasses, S. arabicus and S. barbatus (hereafter Schismus spp.). Total live shrub cover was 9.5 ± 2.7 and 18.1 ± 3.8% for CB-low N and research CB-high N, respectively. The dominant trees/shrubs at the PJ sites were Juniperus californica and Pinus monophylla with an research, understory of shrubs, native forbs and invasive annual grasses, B. madritensis , B. Research! tectorum , and trafficking Schismus spp. Live tree + shrub cover was 20.8 ± 0.9 and 22.7 ± 1.4% at econ research paper PJ-low N and iv papers term PJ-high N, respectively.
Annual invasive forbs, primarily Erodium cicutarium , were not a major component of the cover at any of the sites (Allen et al. 2009 ). Cumulative winter precipitation (mm) for the years in research paper, which vegetation was sampled at the four Joshua Tree National Park sites: creosote bush (CB)-low N ( a ), CB-high N ( b ), pinon-juniper woodland (PJ)-low N ( c ), and PJ-high N ( d ). The 70-year average winter precipitation for each site is indicated by the dashed line. Shading indicates years that did not receive sufficient precipitation to citing a book a research, elicit germination and econ paper thus were excluded from the statistical analyses. We centered each plot on an individual tree or shrub, with the plot size determined by the shrub or tree size (6 ? 6 m for human paper creosote bush, 8 ? 8 m for juniper, and 10 ? 10 m for pine). Two levels of fertilizer were used, 0.5 and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 , plus unfertilized controls.
In the winter 2005, a lower fertilization treatment (0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 ) was added because the 0.5 g N m ?2 year ?1 treatment had significant effects on biomass in the spring 2005 and econ research paper we were interested in determining if a lower N threshold existed. The fertilization levels bracket the observed range of N deposition found in drama development, this region (Sullivan et al. 2001 ; Tonnesen et al. 2007 ). In addition, the high level of fertilization was chosen to be comparable to other desert fertilization studies where 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 has induced responses by econ the invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ). Ten replicates of each shrub or tree species were fertilized and selected across the landscape in a randomized block design, with the development coursework exception of PJ-low N where the econ limited availability of trees and shrubs resulted in nine blocks. At the PJ sites, both pine and junipers were fertilized with 0, 0.5, and 3.0 g N m ?2 year ?1 in each block, but only juniper 0.2 g N m ?2 year ?1 plots were added to each block in 2005 due to limited numbers of drama development, pines at econ paper these sites.
Plots were fertilized with granular NH 4 NO 3 each December beginning in human trafficking paper, 2002. We sampled vegetation each spring (March–May) at the peak of production, which varied by site and year depending on temperature and precipitation. Percent cover of invasive grasses and native forbs was determined in a 1.0 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat placed outside the drip line of each shrub (i.e., just outside the edge of the shrub canopy) on research paper the north- and library thesis south-facing sides. Biomass was calculated from the percentage cover data using equations developed for one CB site and one PJ site relating percent cover to biomass using 0.25 ? 0.5-m clipped plots. Biomass relationships were determined in 2005 and 2008 for research fertilized and unfertilized plots, with the 2008 data applied to citing within, all years except 2005 due to research, the very high amounts of precipitation received during the 2004–2005 growing season. Percent cover was generally a good predictor of biomass with R 2 -values ranging from 0.77 to 0.97 (2005 regressions n = 11, 2008 regressions n = 21). A relationship between percent cover at the drip line and the percent cover in the interspaces (i.e., the spaces outside the influence of the shrubs) was developed using 2008 cover data from PJ-high N. Because interspace vegetation carries fire through the desert by creating a continuous fine fuel source between shrubs and is the basis for the fire thresholds, it was necessary to iv papers term, convert all drip line percent cover values to interspace cover estimates. Percent cover, measured in 1 ? 0.5-m gridded quadrat in the interspaces of a subset of econ paper, PJ plots was found to be 0.76 of the percent cover on the south side of the shrub.
This conversion was applied to all sites and treatments in all years and biomass calculated from the interspace cover estimates. Prior to fertilization, we took soil cores to a depth of 5 cm from interspace areas in all plots for citing extractable soil N analysis. Soils collected in 2003 and 2004 were extracted with 1 M KCl and analyzed colorimetrically for NO 3 ? and research NH 4 + (Technicon Instruments). Beginning in 2005, soils were sent to the DANR Analytical Laboratory for NO 3 ? and NH 4 + determination based on published protocols ( http://www.danranlab.ucdavis.edu/ ). Extractable soil N was converted to an aerial basis using average site rock content and bulk density measurements and summing the measured soil N with the N fertilizer added. In the cases of outliers or missing data, the mean value from all plots in a treatment was used in graduate essay help engineering, the statistical analyses.
The shoot weight from the paper garden experiment was analyzed using a residual maximum likelihood ANOVA to iv papers term, account for econ research the split-plot design. The ANOVA was run for each species and sampling period to cuhk thesis, determine the effect of N, water availability, and the N ? water interaction on biomass using JMP version 7 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Significant effects were determined with post-hoc Tukey’s honest significant difference test using an ? = 0.05. All data were transformed as necessary to meet requirements for equal variance and normal distribution of error. For the field fertilization of econ paper, natural vegetation experiment, CART was conducted using JMP version 8 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). We chose to use regression tree analysis due to cuhk library thesis, its ability to handle non-linear combinations of predictor variables and identify thresholds (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). In CART, decision trees are generated through recursive partitioning of the data set into subsets that are more homogeneous in econ research paper, terms of the response variable (Breiman et al. 1984 ). Regression trees can be advantageous over traditional linear techniques because they allow for interactions and trafficking research paper non-linearity when numerous predictors are present (Prasad et al.
2006 ). Research Paper! In addition, CART is robust with respect to outliers and does not require that the data be normally distributed (De’Ath and Fabricius 2000 ; Vayssieres et al. 2000 ). Variable descriptions used in regression tree analysis. For vegetation type analyses only; identifies the site location in each vegetation type (low N or high N) For PJ only; identifies the species of tree or shrub about which the citing a book a research plot was located. Amount of precipitation that fell during September and October. Amount of precipitation that fell during November and December. Amount of econ, precipitation that fell during January and February. Amount of precipitation that fell during March and library April. Amount of soil N measured prior to fertilization each winter + the amount of econ research, fertilizer added, converted to g m ?2.
Total interspace biomass calculated from % cover of invasive grasses and outline research native forbs measured outside the shrub dripline and multiplied by a reduction factor. Average percent cover of invasive (exotic) grasses measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. Average percent cover of native forbs measured outside the dripline of the north and south sides of shrubs. The 2007–2008 winter rain season in the Yucca Valley region was characterized by paper four precipitation events; one each in December and January, and cuhk library two in February (Online resource 1). Research Paper! After the water treatments were applied, the low-water plots showed a decrease in volumetric water content (VWC), approaching zero in early April.
The decrease in VWC in the control plots was more gradual due to iv papers term, three applications of water and research paper approached zero in mid-April. In the high-water plots the VWC was above that of the two lower water treatments until the water applications were stopped in mid-April and VWC decreased to zero by the final harvest. Average individual plant biomass (g per plant ± SE) for drama coursework each harvest of Amsinckia tessellata ( a ) and research Bromus madritensis ( b ) across the iv papers term water and soil N treatments. Econ! At the citing a book within end of the econ research growing season the largest individuals were found in the high water, high-N ( black bars ) treatments. Asterisks indicate the most significant response. ANOVAs on biomass of B. Library! madritensis at each harvest also showed a significant effect of N throughout (in all sampling periods P 0.0001).
In all cases the 2.99 g soil N m ?2 plots had larger plants, with no difference in plant size between 0.95 and 1.54 g N m ?2 . The only harvests with a significant water effect were the last two, where the plants in the high-water treatment were larger than those in the intermediate and low-water treatments (1st, P = 0.54; 2nd, P = 0.46; 3rd, P = 0.0002; 4th, P 0.0001). In all N treatments the plants reached the maximum size by second harvest in the low- and intermediate-water plots; in the high-water plots individuals continued to grow until the final harvest (Fig. 2 b). No N ? water interactions were observed at any harvest for either species. Field fertilization of natural vegetation. Summary of regression tree results. Total SS explained by each variable a (%) NDP = 76.8, SOP = 16.9, SoilN = 1.8.
JFP = 88.8, NDP = 7.0, SoilN = 2.7, SOP = 1.5. NDP = 78.5, SOP = 19.2, SoilN = 1.4. SOP = 88.5, SoilN = 6.5, MAP = 5.1. SOP = 94.6, SoilN = 5.4. NDP = 95.4, SOP = 4.6. NDP = 87.1, SOP = 8.8, SoilN = 4.0. NDP = 69.1, SoilN = 15.6, JFP = 9.9, MAP = 3.3, SOP = 2.1. Site = 79.1, SOP = 15.1, NDP = 4.2, SoilN = 2.1.
NDP = 58.3, SoilN = 23.1, Site = 10.6, SOP = 7.9. JFP = 85.3, SOP = 10.3, SoilN = 4.4. SOP = 82.8, SoilN = 12.2, MAP = 4.9. SOP = 76.9, SoilN = 23.1. SoilN = 56.9, NDP = 39.4, Species = 3.7. n-Cal Number of plots in econ paper, calibration dataset. n-Val number of plots in cuhk library, validation dataset. NV number of explanatory variables in final model.
NTN number of terminal nodes in research, final model. a Percentage of total SS explained by iv papers term each variable in the representative final tree, See Tables 1 and 2 for research other abbreviations and variable definitions. Regression tree results on total biomass for drama development each vegetation type. Predictor variables (see Table 2 ) in ovals , threshold value and research paper percentage of inductive essay format, model variance explained by paper that variable under the outline human paper oval. Mean value of the response variable in econ paper, rectangles , number of observations falling within that class shown under the mean. Graduate Admission! Biomass above the research paper fire-carrying threshold indicated by shading. Inductive Format! Asterisks indicate when multiple variables explained equal SS.
Individual regression trees for native forb and invasive grass cover at the low- and high-N-deposition CB sites had fewer terminal nodes than those for the combined sites (Table 3 ). Research! For both invasive grass and native forb cover at CB-low N, precipitation explained the majority of the model variance. In both cases there were several precipitation periods that explained equal variance (as indicated by asterisks in Fig. 3 and Online resources 2 and 3); the iv papers term most frequently occurring variable from the cross-validations is presented in the figures. At CB-low N, soil N was a significant explanatory variable for both invasive grasses and native forbs, but at CB-high N, only precipitation was found to be significant in explaining invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover was primarily explained by precipitation, with soil N explaining 4% of model variance and resulting in econ, greatest cover when soil N 3.8 g m ?2 (Online resource 2). The combined and individual site regression trees for essay PJ generally explained less variance than the CB regression trees (Table 3 ). Econ! The regression tree on cuhk thesis joint-site total biomass indicated that precipitation was the primary explanatory variable, with NDP and JFP precipitation having equal explanatory power for the first split. Soil N explained 15.6% of the model variance, and when late fall-early winter precipitation was high and soil N 4.2 g m ?2 , biomass exceeded the fire threshold. Paper! Except for graduate essay engineering two other cases, average biomass was less than the fire threshold (Fig. 3 ). Econ Research! The first split of the joint-site regression tree for invasive grasses was on the site variable, while native forb cover was primarily influenced by winter precipitation (NDP and JFP with equal variance explained for the first split) and was maximized when soil N was between 0.37 and 0.67 g m ?2 . The site-specific PJ regression trees revealed that the greatest cover of invasive grasses occurred with JFP 15 mm at PJ-low N and paper high fall rains (SOP 50 mm) and soil N (between 1.4 and 3.5 g m ?2 ) at PJ-high N (Online resource 3). Overall, these models explained relatively little of the total variance in invasive grass cover (Table 3 ). Native forb cover at PJ-low N was more responsive to soil N than invasive grasses; the greatest cover of forbs occurred with between 3.4 and 4.0 g m ?2 or greater than 0.5 g m ?2 of soil N depending on the timing and amount of early and late season precipitation (Online resource 2).
Native forb cover at PJ-high N was greatest under the influence of pine trees when soil N between 0.37 and 0.42 g m ?2 . The CART results indicate that the primary limiting factor for production at econ research these arid sites is water, with the first split occurring on inductive essay precipitation and explaining 77 and 69% of model variance in CB and econ research paper PJ, respectively. The greater explanatory power of library thesis, precipitation at CB is likely because CB occurs in areas with less mean annual precipitation (Rowlands 1995 ); at our sites the mean winter precipitation in PJ was 17 mm greater than in paper, CB over the study period. Studies in arid systems have shown that water availability is most limiting for annual production (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Beatley 1974 ; Patten 1978 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Brooks 2002 ). However, while some researchers have found that annual production exhibits secondary limitation by library N (Whitford and econ research paper Gutierrez 1989 ; Gutierrez et al. 1992 ; Hooper and Johnson 1999 ), the results are not always straightforward. Drama Development! Often the response to econ, increased soil N is species or site specific, depending on outline research antecedent soil N conditions (Gutierrez and Whitford 1987 ; Ludwig et al. 1989 ; Brooks 2003 ). In our CART models, soil N is a significant explanatory variable for paper both CB and PJ biomass, but only weakly so in CB (2%) compared to PJ (16%). Again, this is likely because CB is more water limited than PJ.
However, we have a limited dataset (2004–2008) and do not include the inductive essay severe drought year of 2007. Given the econ paper importance of precipitation timing on production and graduate help population dynamics (Went 1948 ; Bowers 1987 ; Brown 2002 ; Levine et al. 2008 ), additional years of data would be needed to fully understand the econ research interacting effects of soil N and precipitation on production. An additional factor that may confound our results is that the four sites are spread throughout JTNP in development coursework, areas with different soil textures, amounts of rock cover, and long-term patterns of econ research, precipitation and N deposition. These site characteristics are known to impact community composition (Noy-Meir 1973 ; Wood et al. 2005 ; Kelly and Goulden 2008 ), the effect of which is observed through the graduate essay PJ CART analyses where Site is research paper a significant explanatory variable of both exotic grass and native forb cover. In spite of drama, differences between the paper sites, there are consistent results regarding the response of native forb cover to soil N. Native forb cover is greatest at all sites except PJ-high N when soil N is less than 3.8–4.0 g N m ?2 (Online resource 2), suggesting that above this soil N level native forbs are either directly harmed or outcompeted by nitrophilous species such as invasive grasses (Brooks 2003 ; Salo et al. 2005 ). At PJ-high N, the greatest percent cover of native forbs occurs under low-N conditions (0.4 g m ?2 ) and in the influence of iv papers term, pine trees. The second highest cover of native forbs at this site is under intermediate soil N levels, 1.5 g m ?2 N 3.8 g m ?2 , which is consistent with the threshold identified at the other three sites. Econ Research! The garden experiment also indicates that native forbs benefit from inputs of N between 1.5 and 3 g m ?2 , supporting the findings from graduate admission essay other studies showing that native forbs in arid environments are N limited (Romney et al. 1978 ; Mun and Whitford 1989 ; Salo et al.
2005 ). Exotic grass cover is more influenced by precipitation than native forb cover (Online resource 3), particularly at PJ-low N and research CB-high N where there is inherently low grass cover. When grass cover is high, soil N concentrations as low as 0.9 g m ?2 promote increased grass cover but no threshold of cuhk thesis, soil N emerged as with the native forbs. Econ Paper! It is unclear whether the lack of a soil N threshold is due to inductive essay, an inherent property of the exotic grasses or because soil sampling occurred at individual points, resulting in high within-treatment variability and obscuring threshold identification. Understanding the factors promoting grass invasion is research paper particularly important given that exotic grasses are associated with increased fire frequency in library thesis, the deserts due to their persistent standing litter on the landscape through the econ research dry season when fire threat is greatest (Brown and Minnich 1986 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Our CART analysis is also useful for investigating the factors influencing biomass production and fire thresholds in the desert. There is currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire through arid landscapes. Studies of fire thresholds in grass-dominated systems have shown that the amount of fine fuel needed to carry fire is cuhk library between 70 and 150 g m ?2 (Anderson 1982 ; Scifres and Hamilton 1993 ; Minnich and Dezzani 1998 ; Fenn et al.
2003a ). As a first approximation, we set the fire threshold for econ research paper both ecosystem types at 100 g m ?2 and found that the conditions leading to biomass production above this threshold are high amounts of rain in CB, and high amounts of rain combined with high amounts of citing a book a research paper, soil N in PJ (Fig. 3 ). Although years with greater fine fuel buildup increase the fire risk in both vegetation types (Brown and econ paper Minnich 1986 ; Rogers and Vint 1987 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ), PJ is more prone to burning than CB due to engineering, greater amounts of woody fuels (Brooks and Matchett 2006 ; Brooks and Minnich 2006 ). Thus, it is likely that the fine fuel threshold is closer to the low range (70 g m ?2 ) in PJ and the high range (150 g m ?2 ) in CB. When we re-evaluate the CART results with these adjusted fire thresholds, we find that the econ research paper only case when the fire threshold is exceeded at CB is when SOP is inductive format greater than 1 mm and NDP is greater than 93 mm. The precipitation record from the past 75 years indicates that this precipitation pattern occurred 17 times, primarily in the late 1930s–1940s and the late 1960s to early 1980s. This is consistent with the findings of Brown and Minnich ( 1986 ) who determined that fires in CB increased during the late 1970s, which they attributed to increased rainfall and exotic grass invasion in that period. Brooks and econ Matchett ( 2006 ) examined factors influencing fire spread in the Mojave Desert and showed that the high-elevation woodlands and desert montane zones show little change in the size distribution of fire in response to a book within a research, rainfall amounts because of the amount of woody biomass in these zones. In the middle elevation zone they found that native fuels are generally just below the threshold allowing fire spread and thus are influenced by econ research increased precipitation. Our PJ sites are in between the high-elevation woodlands and mid-elevation zone examined by graduate admission essay engineering Brooks and Matchett ( 2006 ) indicating that there is likely a fine fuel threshold for our sites that may be as low as 70 g m ?2 . There are four cases when biomass exceeds this threshold; three are when NDP is greater than 73 mm and one is when precipitation is research intermediate but soil N is citing a book within a research paper high, greater than 3.2 g m ?2 . In the garden experiment invasive grass biomass was greater in all water treatments when soil N was 3 g m ?2 , although the greatest biomass was observed under the highest precipitation and econ paper N. Similarly, a field fertilization experiment in essay, the Mojave by Brooks ( 2003 ) showed that invasive grass biomass was largest when 3.2 g N m ?2 was added in the year with 300% above-average December precipitation, whereas no effect was observed when that amount of N was added in a year with average December precipitation.
Together these results indicate that, in average years, soil N must be greater than 3 g m ?2 for the fire threshold to be reached. Studies of fire in other arid and semi-arid regions have linked fire frequency with wet years that were followed by periods of below-average precipitation (Swetnam and Betancourt 1998 ; Grassino-Mayer and Swetnam 2000; Harris et al. 2008 ). Research Paper! Thus, with the exception of areas under very high N deposition loads, PJ in library, transitional mid- to high-elevation zones may be unlikely to burn in the absence of a period of wet years. One purpose of the CART analysis was to understand the influence of precipitation timing on invasive grass and native forb cover. Climate change models indicate that precipitation variability is likely to increase across the southwestern United States and that the timing of econ, precipitation may also shift (Lenihan et al. 2003 ; Bell et al. 2004 ; Bell and coursework Sloan 2006 ). Such changes in econ research paper, the precipitation regime may favor either invasive grasses or native forbs if there are differences in the responses to precipitation timing by these two groups. Germination studies have shown that the common invasive grasses at our sites tend to development, germinate rapidly with small inputs of econ research, rain and iv papers term without strict temperature requirements (Beatley 1974 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Salo 2004 ). In contrast, native winter forbs have strict germination requirements, generally needing at least 25 mm of precipitation and econ paper cold nighttime temperatures (Juhren et al.
1956 ; Gutterman 1994 ; Levine et al. 2008 ). The exception is a small group of summer-germinating plants that flower during the outline trafficking research following spring (Went 1948 ). In years of late-August early-September rains, individuals from this species group can grow very large and make up a significant portion of the econ biomass (Went 1948 ). The CART model for CB native forb biomass indicates that NDP 28 mm provides conditions favorable for native forb cover, with the greatest cover observed in combination with SOP 56 mm. These results lend support to a book within a research, the findings that fall precipitation of at least 25 mm allows desert native plants to germinate, and that under conditions of early fall precipitation summer-germinating spring-flowering annuals can greatly increase native cover. For CB invasive grasses, JFP and MAP have equal explanatory power for the first split, indicating that invasive grasses are favored not only by a wet winter, but an extended rainy season. Our garden experiment resulted in an extended growing season in the high-water plots since natural precipitation ended in late February. Econ! The results from graduate essay this controlled experiment show that by prolonging the growing season, the individual biomass of research, B. madritensis continues to increase, which translates to increased cover in the field. Unlike in CB, PJ native forb cover is more influenced by late fall (NDP) and early winter (JFP) rain, while invasive grasses are influenced by graduate admission essay SOP in the high-N site and econ research paper NDP/JFP at the low-N site. The reason for the virtual flip in the seasonality effects on invasive grass and native forb cover between CB and PJ may be due to the influence of temperature. The high-elevation PJ sites are much colder than the low-elevation CB sites, and as such exhibit later season maturation of outline human trafficking, native forbs in the spring. Temperatures are rarely cold enough to result in decreased survival of native forb seedlings once they have germinated (Juhren et al.
1956 ), but having sufficient moisture in the late winter months appears to allow the rosettes to research, grow, resulting in library thesis, larger individuals and total cover at econ research peak. Thesis! The invasive grass cover in our PJ sites is primarily governed by site effects, making it difficult to draw generalizations based on our data. Additional plot-scale measurements on soil and landscape characteristics might be useful in research paper, further understanding the a book within a research paper factors controlling invasive grass cover in this region. We combined a garden experiment, where the invasive grass B. madritensis and the native forb A. tessellata were grown in monoculture, with a multi-year field fertilization of natural vegetation experiment to examine the interaction between soil N and water availability on production of desert winter annuals. Research Paper! We found that while native forbs and invasive grasses are limited by water availability, the response to format, increased soil N is dependent on factors such as the degree of water limitation, site characteristics (e.g., soil texture, soil C), and degree of grass invasion. However, our results also show that in some cases added soil N increases production above the fire threshold, thereby increasing the research paper risk of fire in some polluted areas.
In addition to increasing fire risk, increased soil N promoted invasive grasses and decreased native forb cover at some sites. These results provide further evidence that native forb and shrub communities, and the associated wildflower displays, may be threatened by non-native grass invasions particularly in areas such as JTNP that are subjected to increased N deposition. This research was funded by the National Park Service PMIS no. 72123, National Science Foundation DEB 04-21530, the Community Foundation of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, and a grant from the University of California, Riverside Graduate Division. The manuscript was substantially improved by cuhk library thesis comments provided by C. Barrows and L. Santiago, as well as three anonymous reviewers. Paper! Thanks also to M. Fenn for providing N deposition values, the Foote family for allowing L. E. R. to use their property in iv papers term, Yucca Valley for the garden experiment, and to the members of the research paper E. Inductive Essay! Allen laboratory, especially Chris True and Robert Steers, for field and econ lab support. This article is cuhk thesis distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Leela E. Rao 1 3 Email author Edith B. Allen 1 2 1. Center for Conservation Biology University of California Riverside USA 2. Department of research, Botany and Plant Sciences University of California Riverside USA 3. Citing A Book Within A Research Paper! Air Resources Board Emission Research Section El Monte USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.
.RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.
Pay for Essay and Get the Best Paper You Need -
Research in Economics - Journal - Elsevier
link essay LES PRINCIPAUX MOTS DE LIAISON. (sauf conjonctions de subordination et adverbes en - ly ) Les mots de liaison (ou mots-charnières, articulateurs, etc.) - en anglais link words / connective words / connectives / connectors - sont une catégorie fourre-tout rassemblant des adverbes, des locutions adverbiales, des conjonctions de subordination, des conjonctions de coordination, des expressions toutes faites, des abréviations d'origine latine, etc., ayant pour fonction d'articuler des propositions entre elles, de relier des membres de phrase. On trouvera ci-dessous une liste (non-exhaustive) de mots de liaison (à l'exception des conjonctions de subordination et des adverbes en - ly modificateurs de phrase, traités par ailleurs). N.B. : Dans cette liste, les articulateurs que l'on trouve employés en tout début de phrase, portent la majuscule et sont suivis, éventuellement, d'une virgule ou de deux points selon le cas.
- Again : De plus, En outre; D'ailleurs. - alias : alias, ou (de reformulation, d'équivalence), autrement dit. - all the same : malgré tout, quand même, tout de même, au demeurant. - among others : entre autres. - as a consequence : de ce fait, en conséquence (de quoi) - as a matter of fact : en fait. - as a result : de ce fait, en conséquence (de quoi) - as well as . (conj. de coord.) : ainsi que, de même que. - at econ research paper, any rate : en tout cas, de toute façon.
- at human research paper, least : 1/ au moins ; 2/ du moins. - besides : d'ailleurs, du reste. - both . and . : et . et . à la fois . et . - but : 1/ mais ; 2/ (suivi de then ) en revanche. 3/ ( But .. Econ Paper? .) En revanche, Cependant. - by library the way : à propos, soit dit en passant. - e.g. Econ Research Paper? / eg (du latin exempli gratia ) : par ex. Drama? / p.e. Paper? (par exemple) (lu « for iv papers term, example » en G.B. mais souvent « e g » aux E.U.)
- either . or . Econ Research? : soit . Cuhk Library Thesis? soit . Research? ou bien . Thesis? ou bien . - even better : bien mieux, mieux encore. - even so : mais cependant, quand même, malgré cela. - first, . second, . third, . : primo, . Research? secundo, . tertio, . - for iv papers term, example : par exemple. - for instance : par exemple. - for research paper, one thing : une raison, c'est que . Outline Human Trafficking Research Paper? entre autres raisons. - for one thing . Research? , for outline research paper, another . : d'un côté . , de l'autre . - for econ, that matter : pour ce qui est de cela, d'ailleurs. - for this purpose : à cet effet, dans ce but.
- for this reason : pour cette raison. - Further, . (aussi entre virgules) : 1/ En outre ; 2/ D'ailleurs, Du reste. - furthermore : de plus, en outre. - however : cependant, toutefois, pourtant, du reste. - i.e./ie (du latin id est) : c.--d. Coursework? (c'est--dire), savoir (lu « that is to research paper, say » en G.B. mais souvent « i e » aux -U.) - in admission, addition : en sus, de surcroît, en outre. - in any case : en tout cas.
- in/by comparison : en comparaison. - in/by contrast : par opposition. - in other words : en d'autres termes, autrement dit. - in econ paper, spite of that : malgré cela. - in that case : en ce cas là - in iv papers term, the first place, . in the second place, . : en premier lieu, . en second lieu, . - in research, this case : dans ce cas.
- in which case (après virgule) : auquel cas, et dans ce cas. - instead (général. Engineering? en tête de phrase, + virgule) : au lieu de cela. - inter alia (expression latine) : entre autres. - last but not least : dernier point mais non le moindre. - let alone : sans parler de . sans compter . Research Paper? à plus forte raison . - likewise : également, pareillement. - moreover : en outre, de plus. - More than that, . : Bien plus. - namely : savoir (peut encore se traduire par « : »)
- nevertheless : néanmoins, toutefois, toujours est-il que, il n'empêche que. - nonetheless : néanmoins, toutefois. - nor : 1/ ni ; 2/ (général. Admission Essay Engineering? en tête de phrase, + auxiliaire + sujet) ne . pas davantage, ne . Research? pas non plus. - not just . Iv Papers Term? but also . : non pas simplement . mais aussi . - not only econ paper . but also . : non seulement . mais aussi/également/encore . - Not only that, . Outline Research Paper? : Il n'y a pas que cela, . Bien plus, . - not to mention . Research? : sans parler de . outre . - notwithstanding : nonobstant, néanmoins. - Now, . : 1/ Or ; 2/ Il se trouve que. - on inductive essay format the contrary : au contraire. - on the one hand . on econ research paper the other hand . : d'une part . Essay? d'autre part . ; d'un côté . Research? de l'autre . - on drama development coursework the other hand (seul) : 1/ en revanche ; 2/ d'un autre côté - on top of that (général. en tête de phrase, + virgule) : qui plus est, en plus de cela. - or : 1/ (reformulation, équivalence) ou, autrement dit ; 2/ (double possibilité) ou, ou bien ; 3/ mais peut-être ; 4/ sinon. - or again : ou encore.
- or otherwise : sinon. - or rather : ou plutôt, ou mieux, ou plus exactement. - otherwise : 1/ sinon ; 2/ (précédé de but ) mais à part cela, mais par ailleurs. - over and above : par dessus le marché - Rather, . : Mieux, Plus exactement. - say (= let us say ) (en incise) : disons . Paper? mettons. Cuhk? par exemple . - so (parfois précédé de and ) : donc, par conséquent, aussi, c'est pourquoi. - still (général. Paper? en tête de phrase, + virgule) : cependant, quoi qu'il en soit, pourtant, malgré cela. - that is to essay format, say (parfois abrégé en that is econ research paper ) : 1/ c'est-à-dire ; 2/ du moins. - then (souvent en liaison avec subord. par if ou when ) : en ce cas, alors, donc. - therefore : donc, par conséquent.
- The reason is . Format? : La raison en est que . - The result (var. : The upshot ) is (that) . Econ? : Le résultat, c'est que . Cela fait que . - This is within paper because. : C'est parce que . Econ? Cela vient du fait que . La raison en est que . - this is cuhk library why : c'est pourquoi. - This means that . Paper? / What this means is that . Iv Papers Term? : 1/ Cela veut dire que . En d'autres termes ; 2/ Il en résulte que . Econ? Cela fait que . - though (général. en fin de phrase, après une virgule) : cependant, pourtant, malgré tout, quand même. - thus : ainsi (au sens de donc, par conséquent) - to name only a few : pour n'en citer que quelques-uns, entre autres. - viz. (du latin videlicet ) (lu « videlicet » ou « namely ») : c'est-à-dire, à savoir. - What is citing a book more / What's more, . Research? : Qui plus est, Bien plus. - which is admission help why (après virgule) (= and this is econ paper why ) : et c'est pourquoi, ce qui explique pourquoi. - which means that . Format? (après virgule) (= and this means that ) : 1/ ce qui veut dire que . Paper? ; 2/ ce qui fait que . - yet : 1/ (général. Human Trafficking Research Paper? en tête de phrase) pourtant, cependant, malgr cela, malgré tout ; 2/ (précédé de and econ research paper ou de but ) et pourtant, mais pourtant. Dans une langue plus familière, on cuhk thesis trouve encore : - Example: . : Ainsi, Par exemple. - The goal: . Econ Research Paper? : Le but visé est de . But de l'opération : . - The result: . : Résultat des courses : . Total : . Il convient de ne pas confondre certains adverbes ou locutions adverbiales marquant l'adjonction, ainsi : - besides : d'ailleurs, du reste. - over a research and above : par dessus le marché
avec les prépositions et locutions prépositives suivantes : - besides ( + subst. ou + gér.) : outre; outre le fait de. Trouver, dans la liste ci-dessus, l'articulateur synonyme qui convient (et dont la première syllabe ou le premier mot est fourni). Apparier les articulateurs et les adverbes en - ly de même sens. Repérer l'intrus dans chacune des listes suivantes. 1/ as a consequence - as a result - for this reason - furthermore - hence - then - thereby - therefore - the result : - thus.
2/ after all - at any rate - despite this - even so - however - in spite of research that - likewise - still - though - yet. 3/ e.g. - example : - for iv papers term, example - for paper, instance - namely - say. 4/ among others - inter alia - in a research, other words - not only research paper . but also . - not to outline research, mention - to research, name only iv papers term a few. 5/ also - besides - further - furthermore - in addition - moreover - more than that - on top of that - or else - what's more. 6/ i.e. - namely - that is econ research paper - that is to say - this means that - this is drama coursework why. Compléter chacune des phrases suivantes à l'aide de l'articulateur dont la traduction française est donnée entre parenthèses. 1/ You must cut the electricity supply to the appliance (soit) by switching it off (soit) by unplugging it from the paper, mains. 2/ The METALAS cleaning machines clean everything, (non seulement) metals - such as steel, cast-iron, aluminium, copper, zinc - (mais aussi) plastics . 3/ The vibration-damping elements (d'une part) enable the a research, unhindered vibrating of the econ, entire centrifuge and, (d'autre part) , prevent the transfer of admission engineering vibrations to the floor.
4/ When one of the econ research paper, coils is energised, (disons) coil A, then the magnet rotor tends to align itself with the a book within, energised coil. Paper? If subsequently another coil adjacent to the first is iv papers term energised, (disons) coil B, then the paper, rotor will align itself with that coil, having rotated through 90. 5/ Insulation may be tested in iv papers term, several ways, (à savoir) by measuring the leakage current, the econ research paper, breakdown voltage or by essay determining whether the econ research, insulation can withstand greater than normal operating voltages. Vocabulaire : supply : alimentation - appliance : appareil - to switch off : placer l'interrupteur sur la position arrêt - to unplug : débrancher - mains : secteur - steel : acier - cast-iron : fonte - copper : cuivre - vibration-damping elements : amortisseurs - to iv papers term, enable : permettre - unhindered : sans contrainte - centrifuge : centrifugeuse - to econ research, prevent : empêcher - transfer : transmission, communication - floor : sol - coil : bobinage - to energise : alimenter - magnet rotor : rotor magnétique - insulation : isolement - leakage current : courant de fuite - breakdown voltage : tension de rupture - to within a research paper, withstand : supporter - operating voltages : tensions de fonctionnement. Compléter chacune des phrases suivantes à l'aide de l'articulateur dont la traduction française est donnée entre parenthèses. 1/ Of the research paper, three main forms of iv papers term computer-based geometry - wireframe, surface, and solid - solids are the econ research, least abstract and paper (partant) the econ paper, most realistic. 2/ Each key on citing a book the calculator is econ marked with two symbols. Outline Research? (Ce qui fait que) a single key can be used to input two different characters.
3/ A load of washing and econ paper water is very heavy, (aussi) the drum of a washing machine is citing within a research paper stabilized by weights and suspended by econ research heavy-duty springs. 4/ The rules for essay, constructing phrases and research sentences are extremely complicated, (pourtant) we apply them by citing a book a research intuition. Econ Paper? (ne pas employer however ) 5/ Satisfactory performance depends on proper installation, lubrication and maintenance. (Par conséquent) all instructions in this manual must be carefully followed. Vocabulaire : computer-based : sur ordinateur - wireframe : filaire - surface : surfacique - solid : volumique - solids : modélisation volumique - key : touche - calculator : calculatrice - to inductive essay, input : saisir - load of washing and econ water : contenu d'une lessive (linge et eau) - drum : tambour - weight : poids - heavy-duty : pour service lourd - rule : règle - phrase : expression - sentence : phrase - performance : fonctionnement - proper : correct - instructions : indications, consignes. Compléter chacune des phrases à l'aide de l'articulateur qui convient. 1/ A 100-watt light bulb uses 1/10th of a unit in one hour. (Then, So, Now) in five hours it will use 1/2 unit. 2/ The work of a data-processing department has two aspects, (either, for inductive essay, example, namely) the program-development aspect, and the operations aspect. 3/ Do not place the iron on econ research rough surfaces, (e.g., i.e., not to cuhk thesis, mention) a metal support, which could scratch the soleplate. 4/ A conventional central distribution board is econ research no longer necessary, (similarly, nor, as well as) are the thesis, normal back-up systems. 5/ If you are sure you want to delete ALL the econ research paper, information on development the disk in drive A:, click on paper O.K. Outline Human Trafficking Research? (Or rather, Otherwise, On the other hand) click on CANCEL.
Vocabulaire : light bulb : ampoule électrique - data-processing department : service d'informatique - program development : mise au point de logiciels - operations : activités - iron : fer (à repasser) - rough : rugueux - to econ research, scratch : rayer - soleplate : semelle - conventional : classique - distribution board : panneau de distribution - back-up systems : appareillages auxiliaires - to delete : effacer - drive : lecteur (de disquette) - to drama, cancel : annuler. Compléter chacune des phrases à l'aide de l'articulateur qui convient. 1/ The speech recognition system is speaker dependent, (for instance, for this purpose, i.e.) it recognizes only the research paper, speaker who has previously trained it to recognize his voice. 2/ Sciaky Industries have supplied many facilities for inductive format, the volume production - (at least, inter alia, not to mention) - of wheels, spark plugs, gears, brakeshoes, petrol tanks, shock absorbers, silencers, bumpers, etc. 3/ Cleaning tanks manually can be a costly and econ research time-consuming process. (Instead, Plus, This is Why) it can be a safety hazard. 4/ Adjustments, maintenance operations and essay repairs must not be carried out with the paper, instrument open and a book a research powered up except under exceptional circumstances, where this is paper unavoidable, (in which case, nevertheless, the reason is) such work must be carried out only by cuhk appropriately qualified personnel aware of the risks involved. 5/ The immediate effect of econ paper poor insulation is essay (both, either, neither) an research paper increase in leakage current or a decrease in insulation breakdown strength.
Vocabulaire : speech recognition system : système de reconnaissance de la parole - speaker dependent : monolocuteur - previously : préalablement - to train : enseigner à - to iv papers term, supply : fournir - facilities : systèmes - volume production : production en série - spark plug : bougie d'allumage - gear : engrenage - brakeshoe : patin de frein - petrol : essence - absorber : amortisseur - bumper : pare-chocs - time-consuming : interminable - process : opération - hazard : danger - adjustment : réglage - to carry out : effectuer - powered up : sous tension - unavoidable : inévitable - aware : conscient - involved : encouru - insulation : isolement - increase : augmentation - leakage current : courant de fuite - decrease : diminution - insulation breakdown strength : résistance au défaut d'isolement.