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Introduction, Summary, and Conclusions - Preventing Tobacco Use
Salman Rushdie. An Anthology of Critical Essays in New Millennium. The Novels of Salman Rushdie: A Postcolonial Reading. Section-A Midnight’s Children: Fiction, History and the Nation. 1. Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnight’s Children. 2. The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children. Sutanuka Ghosh Roy.
3. Interfacing Myth vs. History: A Postcolonial Study of Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children. Ram Bhawan Yadav. 4. Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children: A Kaleidoscopic View. T. Sasikanth Reddy.
5. In Time of Narrating the Nation: Rushdie’s Transcendence of National History in Midnight’s Children. Section-B Diasporic Identity, Intertextuality, Treatment of History and Autobiography. 6. Diasporic Identity in Salman Rushdie's Shalimar the essays about tobacco Clown. 7. Ambitions! Indianness and Satire of History in Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh. 8. About Tobacco! Journey towards New World in the selected Novels of Salman Rushdie. 9. Globalization and Cosmopolitanism: Major Themes in the Works of Salman Rushdie. Hetal K. Kachhia. 10. Theological Aspects and Diasporic Sensibilities in Rushdie’s Satanic Verses.
11. Salman Rushdie’s Shame: A Study of Narrative Strategies. Nesha Sabar and Pramod Kumar Das. 12. Salman Rushdie: A Self-Proclaimed Controversialist. 13.
Chutneys, Pickles, Palimpsests and Collages: Lived and Imagined Temporalities in the Works of Salman Rushdie. 14. Nation and Non-narration: Multiplicity, Hybridity and Heterogeneity in Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh. Manjeet Kumar Kashyap. 15. Metautobigraphicity: Some Observations on Salman Rushdie’s Enchantress of Florence-165. A Note on Contributors’ Profile.
The Novels of Salman Rushdie: A Postcolonial Reading. Salman Rushdie’s novels launch a scathing critique of intellectuals and politicians whose endorsement of pluralism is purely rhetorical. Essay On Pros And Cons Sites! …Rushdie shows that people who claim to promote unity are actually complicit in creating ethnic strife… Rushdie wants a productive, inclusive cosmopolitanism…can have serious unintended consequences. (Trousdale 91) Rushdie may epitomize the migrant writer par excellence with all its potential for tobacco, reinventing the world and the subject of human identity, but the Rushdie affair also places him in a position in which he seems to a book, personify the flip side of globalization—that is, the clash of civilizations, the increasing gap between cultures, and the proliferation of fundamentalism. (Frank 132) The winner of the Booker Prize (1981), the Booker of Bookers (1993) and the Best of the Bookers (2008) and, of essays about tobacco, late, the PEN Pinter (2014), the name that has dominated the literary world since establishing himself as a leading exemplum of postcolonial, postmodern and diaspora writings, is the renegade, Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie. Famous for multifarious writing, he himself is secret a multifaceted personality, often emerges as an unpredictable figure with an unfathomable depth of creativity and criticism. About Tobacco! Being an iconoclast, Rushdie never chooses the trodden road: he rather plunges headstrong into the unexplored territories of literature, not yet attempted. For the Booker, he never ran the race rather he reached the zenith of the success by bagging the same for of food safety, Midnight’s Children in 1981. This monumental novel has carved niche not only in the history of the Indian English literature but also in the multilingual Literature/s written across the world.
Rushdie played a ground-breaking role in new beginnings — the blending of history with fiction and magic realism. With him begins the essays tobacco era of new writings, new experiments giving him a new identity — the postmodern figure and write an effective literature a progenitor of new generation - the “midnight’s children”. Not only his works but he himself also is a postmodern product - a blend of essays about tobacco, a god for literary aestheticians and about a Satan for religious aestheticians. He has therefore generated enormous interest in intellectual circles as a vibrant writer for analysis and interpretation of his writings. He is essays a recipient of the ‘Booker’ from the judges of thesis, literary art, ‘hooker’ from political commercials and ‘Fatwa’ from the self-declared custodians of Islam, of essays about tobacco, Allah. He is a fighter combating with his two selves—the inner and the outer, and also at the same time with the external world for his The Satanic Verses. His literary dictatorship entangles him into controversies, and arrows of words penetrating his heart and mind compelling him for safety, introspection.
However, Rushdie defends himself at an appearance at 92nd Street Y, expressing his views on copyright while answering a question whether he had considered copyright law barriers (impediments) to free speech: No but that’s because I write for about tobacco, a living, (laughs) and have no other source of a book within paper, income, and I naively believe that stuff that I create belongs to essays tobacco, me, and that if you want it you might have to give me some cash. Write Thesis Statement! […] My view is I do this for a living. The thing wouldn't exist if I didn't make it and so it belongs to me and don't steal it. You know. It's my stuff. 1.
He advocates the application of higher criticism, pioneered during the late 19th century. In a guest opinion piece printed in The Washington Post and “The Times” in mid-August 2005, Rushdie called for a reform in Islam: What is needed is a move beyond tradition, nothing less than a reform movement to bring the core concepts of Islam into the modern age. A Muslim Reformation to combat not only the jihadist ideologues but also the dusty, stifling seminaries of the traditionalists, throwing open windows to let in much-needed fresh air . . . It is high time, for essays about, starters, that Muslims were able to study the revelation of their religion as an event inside history, not supernaturally above it, . . . Broad- mindedness is related to tolerance; open-mindedness is the sibling of piece. 2. Call him a defector or a Satan or an antireligious rabble but he seeks God’s blessings by asking for an apology through his Luka and the Fire of Life. The apology is not for having been blasphemous but for having shaken the faith of Muslims before preparing a suitable environment for developing humanist and rational thinking in them that could save them from being blind traditionalist and religious fundamentalists. The heterogeneous journeys of secret essay, his writing transform him into a sage of literary art and devotee of the God, the Allah. He admits, “Man is the storytelling Animal, and tobacco that in stories are his identity, his meaning, and his lifeblood” (Luka 34).
It is for this reason, perhaps, the Allah saved Rushdie from Hezbollah’s bomb attack to assassinate him. Thesis School! Moreover, despite all controversial condemnations, he was knighted for his services to literature in the Queen’s Birthday Honours on 16th of June, 2007. Essays Tobacco! He remarked, “I am thrilled and humbled to receive this great honour, and I am very grateful that my work has been recognized in this way.” 3 Rushdie’s emergence with his creative bulk has dazzled and amazed for being unconventional rather than becoming conundrum for both, the contemporary authors and the readers. He began writing as an anti-colonial and postcolonial reactionary to the West; he switched to incorporate diasporic experiences of on pros and cons of social networking, his own and of other migrants as well. He, thus, pioneered himself in Diaspora writing and world literatures which are over-ripe fruits of postcolonialism. He pioneered himself as a major voice of decolonization, multiculturalism, diasporic experiences and also of tobacco, new humanism. His works embody the stamp of concurrent Indian conventions and write literature review Indo-Anglian interests which lead him to interface with the worldwide readership, especially to essays about, the Western audience. The publication of The Satanic Verses landed him in the labyrinth of controversy worldwide and resulted decreed death sentence (Fatwa) on him. It epitomizes the postcolonialists’ flimsy and constant battle to balance the demands of conflicting cultures. Struggling with his inner conflicts and colonial identity, living as a permanent outsider, he searches for personal authenticity in one or many cultures.
He is the spokesperson for the people of the about quotes subcontinent who are presently residing in the alien lands. Staying within the domains of the about mainstream ideologues such as Britain and the US, he mimics and comments on middle, all Western ideologies and proves himself to be a representative of the essays about tobacco East. Religious and cultural diversity of both India and Britain offers Rushdie a wealth of the rules quotes in essays experience of unnumbered issues and themes that consistently refract throughout his oeuvre. It is his multilevel experience that becomes valuable materials for the variety of his following novels. Every novel of Salman Rushdie deals with the thoughts of national and International theses keeping in mind his primary focus on his India and essays tobacco its subcontinents i.e. Pakistan and Bangladesh. The very opening pages of his novels evoke the themes of of social, migration, exile, diasporic consciousness, nationalism, multiculturalism, dualism etc. His writings have become the focus of a certain kind of struggle for cultural identity in tobacco, Britain and other Western states. Midnight’s Children, his magnum opus, is an agenda of postcolonial and postmodern reactions.
The novel is a conglomeration of an assortment of themes occurred in postcolonial India. It is a fantasized version of the historical reality of India that spans from the Jallianwala Massacre of 1919 to the period of Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi in on pros and cons sites, 1977. Rushdie’s new venture of blending history with fiction and fiction with history employing the technique of magic realism and supernatural elements make the essays about novel characteristically more different than what many other authors had already attempted. Within Paper! Midnight’s Children is essays about superficially the biography of Saleem Sinai and citing a research potentially autobiography of Salman Rushdie but allegorically the history of India. The same has recently been adapted to a movie with eponymous title by Deepa Mehta in which Rushdie has given his voice over. Employing the narrative techniques of Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Gunter Grass, Rushdie amalgamates facts with fiction so artistically that sometimes it becomes a Herculean task to differentiate between truth (history) and fiction (literary invention). Midnight’s Children, thus, has become a trend-setter since its publication in 1981. As Rajeshwar Mittapalli and Pier Paulo Piciucco put it:
The imaginative re-working of Indian history in a culturally hybrid environment, the innovative use of literary techniques. together with a supreme command of the English language and a genius for story telling modeled on the hoary Indian narrative traditions and cultural practices, had established Midnight's Children as a trend setter and tobacco classic for all times. (Preface) The novel deals with displacement and rootlessness which are the main factors of essay on pros sites, identity crisis. Essays! Almost all the major characters whether it is Saleem Sinai or Shiva or Padma or Parvati suffer from this psychological disease of alienation and write an effective identity crisis. Sinai is a true portrait of Rushdie for he himself is the victim of same ailment. The hero Saleem, like his creator, wanders from place to essays, place, from Bombay to citing, Karachi and from Karachi to essays tobacco, Bangladesh finally comes back to Bombay. Rushdie himself returns to India again by how to, the time, not to the geographical India but to the “India of the mind” (Rushdie, 1991). In view of essays, Klaus Boerner, “Midnight’s Children is a Copernican turning-point in the history of literature and essay of ideas (23) that paves the path for other novels of Rushdie. Essays! The effect of this Booker winner substantive text has worked as guiding force behind writing other novels.
Thus, the thesis school next novel Shame was found to be a shorter version of its predecessor Midnight’s Children dealing with the about history of Pakistan- an “insufficiently imagined country, with a blend of secret ambitions, diasporic discourse than of fiction. Essays Tobacco! Overtly it is a book a novel about political turmoil of Pakistan presenting the themes, issues and conflicts of the then conditions but covertly it deals with many major and minor political and social issues. The novel marks the condition of Pakistani women in the light of postcolonial theory. The condition of diasporic women is worse; they are doubly marginalized, and are the victims of patriarchal dominance. In both of these novels, Rushdie’s representation of textualized history displays his multiple aspects that replace the uni-linear version of official history.
Rushdie’s history is the version of essays tobacco, his memory rather than the officially written one. He never describes the past but remakes the past to suit his present purpose using memory as his tool. Midnight’s Children and Shame are to some extent, the history of India and in essays Pakistan respectively. Essays! But his novels move beyond the bounds of history for the purpose of within a research, finding universal significance of historical forces that are operating at a particular phase of time. He manipulates the truth to fictionalize it and thus, makes the real unreal and vice versa. The third novel of about, Rushdie, The Moor’s Last Sigh is more a postmodern than a postcolonial one. The protagonist and narrator Moor inherits the blend of races and creeds of India. His mother Aurora has the on pros of social blood of Portuguese invaders as well as Catholicism in her veins whereas his father is tobacco one of the last Jews of Cochin and of food safety a descendant of Boabdil, the essays about tobacco last Moorish ruler of Spain.
The entire family mimics the chaotic diversity of South India. Throughout the narrative Rushdie celebrates multiculturalism and hybrid ethnicity. This novel presents a family that splits on the views of nationalism and anti-nationalism and citing a book within the division of the family symbolizes the divisions in the country in essays about tobacco, the name of pro-Empire and freedom loving people. The Moor’s Last Sigh is also an attack on essay and cons of social networking sites, the parochial Hinduism led by Shiv Sena in Maharashtra. The people of Shiv Sena have led India towards its unwanted destination, towards a religious country instead of a secularist one. India is essays about known for citing a research, its unity in diversity-- its multi- ethnicity, its multi-religions and its multi-culturalism. Essays About! But the fundamentalist Hindus and essay of food Muslims have led it astray.
This India is against the India that was dreamt of by its freedom fighters, namely Nehru, Gandhi, Subhash and Azad. Though the novel delineates the post- colonial history of India, its metaphoric and linguistic divisions yet it attack India for becoming a pseudo-secularist nation. The publication of The Satanic Verses, in which Rushdie treats Quran as a literary text, open for individual perceptions dared to attempt higher criticism but its aftermath created turmoil in his mind. Tobacco! However, Hindu Fundamentalists banned The Moor’s Last Sigh also in some parts of India due to its attack on Shiv Sena’s supremo, Late Bal Thackeray. But after his colonial and postcolonial narration, Rushdie moves towards global, pop and rules quotes jazz music. His next novel The Ground beneath Her Feet, fictionalizes the fact of Ayatollah Khomeini decreed Fatwa on him. Rushdie begins the novel with the essays death of the female protagonist Vina Apsara on the fourteenth of February 1989, the very date of Fatwa.
The novel raises many global issues incorporating Greek myths and applying postmodern technique. The Ground beneath Her Feet proposes the concept of a new world, a world free from communal, religious and national boundaries. In The Ground beneath Her Feet all the pains of about quotes in essays, Diasporas such as alienation, trauma and longing for homeland have faded out for representative migrants Ormus and tobacco Rai’s love Teenage Vina Apsara, of this novel are valueless because music is beyond restraint. Because of write an effective literature, globalization and essays about liberalization all the conflicts arising from border crossing have washed away. Therefore, diasporic consciousness has also become abstract rather than geographical or psychological. Hybridity and multiculturalism fused in the characters point out Rushdie’s view towards a future in which the ambitions world, demolishing all boundaries, will be united to face any threat. However, Rushdie’s personality differs from his theory. He himself is unable to step across the essays frontiers and write an effective literature review it seems that he is still lingering within his parochial world from which he is destined not to come out.
The collision between the reactions of about tobacco, Islamic countries against him and his instinct for critiquing the religious fundamentalism produced a writhing fury within him. Essay Of Food! The novel Fury is a concrete and material form of his own abstract fury. It is “his first 3-D, full volume American novel, finger snapping, wildly mind-boggling, often slyly funny, red- blooded and red toothed” 4 (Miami Herald). Malik Solanka, the hero of the tobacco novel, is a new version of Buddha who leaves his home for New York without informing anyone. Rushdie once again appears in the disguise of Solanka. Like his creator, Solanka also first flees from his academic life, then from his family and immersed into a world of miniatures. He creates a puppet called “Little Brain” and write thesis middle school later seeing its popularity he himself becomes furious. Essays Tobacco! The novel accurately deals with the darkest side of human nature. The novel Shalimar the Clown is his return to the Indian sub-continent that he left in The Ground beneath Her Feet and Fury. This novel demystifies the political upheaval of Kashmir that resulted due to the interference of and cons of social, America. The novelist delineates the story of post-colonial Kashmir and about tobacco explains the reasons why the rules about paradise became hell, how the Hindu-Muslim unity came under suspicion, why and how the citizens of paradise started becoming terrorists and about what role India and citing within a research Pakistan played in creating the chaos and commotion.
Through the story of essays about, Shalimar and Boonyi, Rushdie displays the on pros and cons sites Hindu-Muslim harmony that existed before independence. The central theme of the novel is the making of about, a terrorist as terror becomes a global phenomenon and a cause of concern worldwide. The effort to citing a book within a research paper, look into the mind and tobacco get under the skin of a terrorist becomes an artistic challenge that the novelist has dealt competently in Shalimar the Clown. In fact, the novel narrates the story of postcolonial and post-independence Kashmir. Since Rushdie is a political novelist, Shalimar the Clown is a blending of realism and quotes in essays magic realism.
Like The Moor’s Last Sigh, Rushdie again imagines a composite culture where race, religion and identity do not matter as in the idea of Kashmir. The novelist shows in how gradually the composite culture is destroyed by both military and militancy. Before 1947, there was no point of dispute between Hindu and Muslim. They used to celebrate each other’s festivals. Tobacco! But the independence of India and Pakistan transformed this paradise into write middle school, a battle field where ignorant armies and citizens are being killed by their own citizens.
In his last venture, The Enchantress of essays, Florence, Rushdie presents adventures of colonizers. Secret! The novel is set in medieval India, at essays tobacco the time of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, the Great, at the time when colonizers began to how to write, arrive and establish their trade which is customary with Salman Rushdie who never adheres to a single theme in his fictions. So is the case with The Enchantress of Florence. Salman Rushdie makes the presence of the beaten past to create future better. The novel is set in the sixteenth century India. It delineates the colonial situations and conditions in which Magor dell Amore is the representative of white colonialists, who lands on the shore of India and makes his way to Sikri to tobacco, the court of Akbar and succeeds in befooling the wisest king. The female protagonist of the fiction Qara Koz seems to on pros and cons of social sites, represent the counter discourse to the colonialism.
The colonial enterprise was a product of essays tobacco, western androcentric imperialist desire. Qara Koz, on the other hand is a woman of Asian blood who manages to bring the whole of Florence, the rules epitome of western civilization of that period under her influence. She represents the subversion of the colonial enterprise. The novel has a helical structure and intertwines two stories going in diverse directions that present a beautiful picture of how Mogor comes to India and becomes closer to Emperor than his nine jewels. In the same way Qara Koz goes, from central Asia to Europe and becomes the heartthrob of Europeans. But in the end Mogor is exposed as liar and has to leave India. Mogor is a symbolic representation of the British colonizers and Koz is symbolic of Indian beauty and innocence. Rushdie’s texts are built upon the themes and issues like- identity crisis, multiculturalism, humanism, feminism, postcolonialism and decolonialism.
In this novel Rushdie attacks Western Empire with the same tool that the British has used against tobacco, the eastern countries. As a staunch de-colonialist, Rushdie takes each and every step for the decolonization of the mind. He advocates psychological freedom what Ngugi calls, “Decolonizing the Mind” along with the geographical and political freedom. Joseph Anton: A Memoir (2012), the how to an effective literature latest production is an autobiography, written in third person narrative, of this “Britney Spears of literature”, (13) says Meenakshi Bharat. Joseph Anton is the pseudonym adopted by Rushdie after the Fatwa was issued against him in 1989. Joseph is Joseph Conrad and Anton is Anton Chekhov of real life. The plight of Rushdie post- Fatwa and his persistent attempt at making writing successful have been portrayed very excellently in this work. Mimicry of Language is one of the tools of decolonization.
The west, through Macaulay’s Minute, started teaching English to acculturate the Asian mind to British patterns while Rushdie and his generation started conditioning the same language to suit Asians and to respond to the Empire. For this, he mixes the words of Hindi, Urdu and other regional languages in essays about tobacco, English and englishsizes them without any reference or notes. He, in his first major novel Midnight’s Children, exhibits the complexities and quandaries that the project of Indianising the resources of English language entails. In each of his novels, he amalgamates words from several origins and essay of food tries to make them perfect. About! To quote Thiara: “Rushdie’s novels… emphasize India’s exuberant multiplicity and multi-vocality” (2009: 172). About In Essays! Thus, he becomes the leader of postcolonial authors who have taken the oath to “provincialize” English, and is determined to subvert the master’s tool in order to make it their own. Apart from fictionalizing the truth of tobacco, India Rushdie has a number of critical writings in how to an effective literature, the form of articles and papers and two critical treatises namely Imaginary Homelands: Essays and essays about tobacco Criticism 1981-1991(1991) and Step Across This Line: Collected Non-Fiction 1992-2002; two collections of story books Harun and the Sea of Stories and Luka and the Fire of Life and of food an autobiography, Joseph Anton: A Memoir.
Rushdie has been followed, researched, read and criticized worldwide post-Midnight’s Children. Essays About! He has been the literary pedigree of the budding authors especially from India. Of Food Safety! “He is very virtuoso and full of ideas”, says Cyrus Mistry in essays about tobacco, Jaipur Literature Festival in 2014. Thus, a critical “virtuoso” is imperative in the new millennium! Salman Rushdie, one of the pioneering voices of the “new Diaspora”, progenitor of series of about quotes in essays, controversies, what we call “Rushdie affair” in tobacco, postmodern literary politics, has been superseding and has intrepid influence in literary sphere. He has written history in sites, fiction and about fiction in history by rules quotes in essays, presenting the “national allegory” of the nation right from about 1947 till date. His literary journey—from Grimus (1975) to Joseph Anton (2012)—has been conspicuously rewarding via Midnight’s Children (1981). The present volume strives to seek to essay of food safety, find how Rushdie is germane in the twenty first century politics of globalization, literary schema, and cosmopolitanism. The book has been divided into two broad heads—the first section intrinsically deals with the most popular book of Rushdie, Midnight’s Children while the about second section contains Rushdie’s latter fictions which have been researched and presented in the light of intertextuality, hybridity, diaspora and, of late, autobiography. The younger and the unheard voices, budding scholars from India and abroad, candidly put forth their views on citing within a research, Rushdie’s various works in the present volume in the following ways: Suhaina Bi, in her paper, ‘Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnight’s Children’, critically analyses cosmopolitanism with that of diaspora and postcolonialism. She presents ‘Cosmopolitanism as an about, ethos that is deduced from Enlightenment theories and values. It advocates a mode of humane thinking about the relationship between human beings without taking into consideration the geographical boundaries and a moral concern for different communities’ and further holds the view that ‘in his real life, Rushdie is struggling for his liberal ideals and freedom of expression and through his novels; he has raised his voice not only for a cosmopolitan but also for on pros networking sites, the whole humanity.
Rushdie retells the tragedy of the minority, which usually occurs at the time of tobacco, socio-political chaos in rules, most of the nations’. The essay entitled ‘The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in essays about tobacco, Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children’ by Sutanuka Ghosh Roy aims to look at rules about in essays history in a new way. This need for a new way of tobacco, looking at older historical form makes Midnight’s Children a unique novel. The paper further explores ‘how Rushdie discovers an alternative to the typical historical traditions of ambitions essay, historical truth as merely recorded facts. He fuses memory and essays about tobacco the process of essay and cons of social networking, recalling memories. In the process he produces individual histories that sometimes overlap some aspects of recorded history’. The paper is concluded with an observation that ‘his (Rushdie’s) novels differ from the other Raj novels written by various authors, in so far as his vision of an Indian internationalism and multiculturalism embraces the essays tobacco politics of quotes in essays, pluralism, whereas the Raj novels are more particular in essays about, the exploration of a British India. Rushdie has shown us the dichotomous nature of India’s decolonisation, even in the use of language he has dislocated the English and let others into it’. Ram Bhavan Yadav’s critique of Midnight’s Children has been put in different way in his research paper ‘Interfacing Myth vs. History: A Postcolonial Study of Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children’. Yadav attempts to capture theoretical functioning of the citing a research paper myths in postcolonial English literature, in general, and Indian English novels, in particular, which plays a vital role in the reformulation of natives’ self and identity.
In this context, his attempt is to read and examine Rushdie’s said novel that blends myths with history by using postcolonial theoretical approaches. Rushdie has credited the essays genre of myth as a strategy of liberation and as an how to write review, ideological notion that denies historical petrification. “The way Rushdie treats the complex issues of identity and liberty makes him a central figure in Postcolonial Literature”, he writes. Midnight’s Children, in the present volume, has occupied a coveted place for the study through multiple tools. But none other than T. Sasikanth Reddy’s article entitled ‘Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children: A Kaleidoscopic View’ surveys that Rushdie’s novels are complex, multi-layered with episodic causality, bearing strong influence of post-modernist novels as well as principles of the Indian art forms. His exalted diction, elevated word usage and felicitous word phrases leave strong impinge on the readers. The novel Midnight’s Children does not have a continuous forward narration rather it is complex and interrelated, based on essays about tobacco, structure repetitions and rules episodic casualties, which is in essays tobacco, fact one of the write thesis middle strong points of the essays tobacco novel, as it is the perfect hitching of the content to secret essay, the form. The paper ends with the conclusion that ‘Rushdie presents history through the tobacco metaphor of chutnification, which gives way to his narrative. In other words, Saleem is actually preserving the facts of history as chutnification, a method of perpetuation of each of the thirty one chapters in the novel which stand for ‘a pickle jar’. The first section, Midnight’s Children: Fiction, History and the Nation, ends with Asis De’s paper entitled ‘In Time of Narrating the Nation: Rushdie’s Transcendence of about quotes in essays, National History in Midnight’s Children’. About! De attempts an argument that challenges the historiographical dimension as the sole point of the narrative's charm. Alternately, he endeavours to establish the point that a Nation could never be understood in full from any personal and perspectival version of historical reality.
De clearly opines that ‘a writer is usually affected by the historical milieu in on pros and cons of social, which s/he lives and the periods of an earlier time with which s/he associates his/her identity.’ The second section entitled “Diasporic Identity, Intertextuality, Treatment of History and Autobiography” is inaugurated with Vikrant Sehgal’s article ‘Diasporic Identity in Salman Rushdie's Shalimar the Clown’ outlines some of the main theories behind the post-colonial discourse, and he argues, from a diasporic perspective specifically thematic element in Rushdie’s Shalimar the Clown. It is tobacco his attempt, despite the influence of his emigration to England, to undermine how Rushdie constructs diasporic identity and culture by specific postcolonial literary techniques such as fragmentation, plurality and language. Indah Lestari’s paper entitled ‘Indianness and Satire of History in Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh’ observes that Rushdie’s novel focuses on the themes of Indian history and the search for identity. These are narrated by being entwined with a family story, in the way similar to Midnight’s Children. National history, like family history, is passed on from generation to the next one. It is told from subjective point of view, and thus is secret essay subject to alteration.
Through her palimpsest painting, Aurora suggests this alteration. National history is essays about also built by an effective, foreign interference. Tobacco! Thus, Indian identity is complex in racial aspect. Moreover, India is also plural in citing a book within paper, terms of language, religion, and political orientation. The paper further aims to analyze the complexity of India as a nation-state from the aspect of its history as depicted in the novel and how Rushdie satirizes Indian history intertwining the protagonist’s personal life and historical events. Ajit Kumar’s critical venture on ‘Journey towards the New World in the Selected Novels of Salman Rushdie’ presents the array of tobacco, diasporic authors and compares with the theme, technique, matter and essay of food safety manner with that of tobacco, Rushdie’s novels and also the content and context of the postcolonial world that is adroitly presented by the author. Kumar concludes that ‘in the history of Indian Literature of English, Salman Rushdie’s efforts are well visible to on pros, the readers.
Right from his first novel Grimus to Midnight’s Children, Shame and The Enchantress of Florence, he seems to be an explorer of the of the human psychology being in the modern world where people long for essays about tobacco, identity and peace but they all seem wandering for it. The effect of Diaspora is seen not only in the life of individuals but also in communities.’ Hetal K. About! Kachhia in her article ‘Globalization and essays tobacco Cosmopolitanism: Major Themes in the Works of Salman Rushdie’ studies the thesis major novels of Rushdie. She beautifully relocates the ‘globalization’ and ‘cosmopolitanism’ in the novels of Rushdie. She writes that ‘(I)f we look at the terms ‘globalization’ and ‘cosmopolitanism’ as the intermingling of essays tobacco, different cultures and its different aspects and phenomena into about in essays, one another, we can say that the works of Salman Rushdie compose a global and intermingled fictional world by including the element of ‘intertextuality’, from his own works to the different allusions from others’ works, which makes the recurrences of characters and places possible from one text to another’. The next chapter in the volume is slightly different from the above mentioned papers. Hetal M Doshi in her paper titled ‘Theological Aspects and Diasporic Sensibilities in Rushdie’s Satanic Verses: An Analysis’ offers Rushdie’s attempt to essays tobacco, fearlessly question some of the religious tenets which he finds devoid of logic. But at the same time, the paper also recognizes that the author has to be cautious in his presentation and execution, when his work deals with the religious sentiments of billions. Freedom of speech does not provide the license to be blasphemous. She brings the essay on pros networking article to a close that ‘the role of an art should be reflection, not action. It is the duty of an artist, more so of a writer to essays, renew the perceptions about history, society and within a research paper religion; not to shatter them’.
History has always surprised us with its various meanings. Salmon Rushdie writes at the crucial historical moment when new theories of history undermine recorded historical facts. Starting from Collingwood to about, Foucault—all have evinced history as the individual’s sole link to it. Nesha Sabar and Pramod Kumar Das also refurbish their evaluation of Rushdie’s narrative technique. But they chose a different novel, Shame, to middle school, deal with. In the paper titled ‘Salman Rushdie’s Shame: A Study of Narrative Strategies’, they focus on the various narrative strategies used in the text. In doing so, they zero in on a range of strategies such as mimicry, history, fairytale, magical-realism, metafiction and about intertextuality employed by Rushdie to knit the narrative and these devices, in turn, help us to understand the text in better and improved way. They conclude their observation that ‘Rushdie’s narrative style can be viewed as a tongue- in-cheek use and ‘abuse’ of school, numerous literary narrative conventions and theoretical perspectives that include exaggerated reflections of colonial mimicry, unreliable narrator’s fairytale motifs and intertextuality.’ The anthology does not end with Ramesh Tibile’s ‘Salman Rushdie: A Self-Proclaimed Controversialist’. Tibile puts forth speckled rationale on Rushdie’s controversy which is his favourite legion. He observes that ‘the political significance of Rushdie’s writing does not change from text to text not because his subject matter changes but also because his political location changes.
In his work, Rushdie proposes only one rather tentative answer to the question of how a decentred being can work meaningfully, and that is by writing history of the particular country’. Temporality and history in the works of about tobacco, Salman Rushdie are unfinalizable and plural. Of Food! Rushdie’s vindication of the ‘imaginative variety of truth’ and allegoric representations of tobacco, nations, events and people challenge the essay of social networking sites established notions about writing history into about tobacco, fiction. In his novels, borderlines between the public and private spheres of experience; memory and imagination; and reality and fantasy are deliberately blurred. Many metaphors suggestive of the nature of time, history and historiography are deployed in essay safety, Rushdie’s novels and he uses the techniques of anachronism and flashback while turning history into fantabulous fictional narratives.
Rushdie justifies the tobacco artistic freedom an author may exercise while transforming the raw material of history into fictional narratives. In her critical essay entitled ‘Chutneys, Pickles, Palimpsests and and cons of social networking sites Collages: Lived and Imagined Temporalities in the Works of Salman Rushdie’, Bini B. S explores Rushdie’s multiple fiction in the light of Foucault’s criticism of the conventional historiography. She further holds the view that ‘History in Rushdie’s works takes the form of a polyphonic narrative which is dappled with hues of tobacco, hilarity, violence, shame, pain and caustic satire’. She concludes her paper with a notion that ‘(I)t is not necessary to tell apart lived experiences and a life lived in imagination. History thus blurs into a realm of ambivalence, indeterminacy and inconclusiveness’. The next paper is complementary to Bini’s paper.
The objective of the paper entitled ‘Nation and Non-narration: Multiplicity, Hybridity and Heterogeneity in Salman Rushdie’s The Moor’s Last Sigh’ by write thesis school, Manjeet Kumar Kashyap is essays how to understand the fiction of Salman Rushdie. In his view, the fiction of Rushdie is marked by secret essay, modern historiography of India. Therefore, it becomes necessary to provide contextual knowledge for essays, understanding his fiction. Rushdie does not depict the secret ambitions essay history and narrates the nation in their conceptualisation of glorious past. Thus, he contests and radically re-interprets the meta-narratives of history and nation.
The ideas of essays, nation and narration in his fiction are created through amalgamation of ethnic essence and speculative narration technique. How To Write Literature Review! He conceives even the very concept of “home” as “a scattered, damaged, concept in our present travails”. Such views refer to a shift from homogeneous nation-states based on the ideology of assimilation to a much more fluid and about tobacco contradictory definition of nations as a multiplicity of diasporic identities. Vali Rahaman’s well-researched critical essay ‘Metautobiographicity: Some Observations on Salman Rushdie’s Enchantress of Florence’ observes the hypothesis that everything - concerning with / referring to writer, reader, the presence of the writer, the absence of the author, and implicit, explicit images of author’s intensions - is in essays required at the time of reading a text. And whatever lies in the themes of the text or whatever remains after culling from the themes of the text, belongs only to the author. Rahman holds his view that ‘the text cannot exist without aspects of the author. About Tobacco! The text without aspects of its author is about quotes in essays a glitch.’
Thus, the anthology offers varied perspectives on Rushdie’s writings. The volume includes the researchers not only from India but also from abroad who are not well-known as critics but have more potential for becoming meticulous critics. They have ardently participated in the present volume to make this book worth reading. The multiplicity of subject matter, plurality of cultural edifice, subjectivity of identity discourse and essays about ‘nostalgic diversity’ and of course multiculturalism make Rushdie’s vast corpus of literature discursive and digressive. The present volume offers the synchronic reality of the texts on the same. The fifteen critical essays included in the volume closely harmonize each other. 1. Radio show Medierna broadcast on Sveriges Radio P1 on 31 January 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salman_Rushdie. Accessed on December 13, 2014. 2. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2005/08/05/AR2005080501483.html (Para 5). Accessed on middle school, December 14, 2014. 3. Essays About Tobacco! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knighthood_of_Salman_Rushdie.
Accessed on citing a book within a research, December 15, 2014. 4. http://www.salman-rushdie.com/blog/fury/. About Tobacco! Accessed on December 15, 2014. Bharat, Meenakshi. “First Words.” Rushdie the Novelist: From Grimus to The Enchantress of Florence. Ed. Write Thesis Middle School! Meenakshi Bharat. New Delhi: Pencraft International, 2009. 11-17. Print. Boerner, Klaus.
The Reception of Midnight's Children in West Germany. The Novels of Salman Rushdie. Eds. G. R. Taneja, R. K. Dhawan. New Delhi: Prestige, 1992. 23-32. About! Print. Frank, Soren. Migration and Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Of Food Safety! Print.
Mistry, Cyrus. “I Don’t Aspire to Rushdie Writing.” Times of India. January 22, 2014. Print. Mittapalli, Rajeshwar, Pier Paolo Piciucco, eds. Preface. Studies in Indian Writing in English. Vol. 2. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers, 2001.
1-10. Print. Rushdie, Salman. Imaginary Homelands: Essays and Criticism 1981-1991. Essays About! London: Granta Books, 1991. Print. - Luka and write an effective the Fire of Life. London: Jonathan Kape, 2010. Print.
- “The Right Time for an Islamic Reformation.” Web. 15 Dec. 2014. Thiara, Nicole Weickgenannt. Salman Rushdie and Indian Historiography. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. Print. Trousdale, Rachel. Nabokov, Rushdie, and the Transnational Imagination.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Essays Tobacco! Print. Section-A Midnight’s Children: Fiction, History and the Nation. CHAPTER-1 Suhaina Bi Presentation of a Wounded Civilization: A Cosmopolitan Perspective of Midnight’s Children. Salman Rushdie has helped the Indian Writing in English to gain a reputation in World Literature in addition to win the prestigious prize of Booker of the Bookers for within, himself in 2008. He is the foremost writer who presented the Sub-continental Diaspora with all its geographical and psychological pros and cons both in real and essays virtual sense. Most of the characters of his novels suffer from the disease of alienation and rootlessness because of their frequent and forced displacements. This is perhaps the reflection of his own personality for he had to leave his home, not once but several times; sometimes at will and at other occasions by force. Hence, he finds himself as a homeless individual in search of his “imaginary homeland”. Essay Of Food! He exploits his experiences both with critical and essays tobacco creative perspective. He has repeatedly confronted the socio- political disasters and experienced many contemporary communal crises emerging in the Indian Subcontinent.
And it is secret ambitions these primary experiences of Rushdie which provide him with unique themes which he skillfully exploits to essays about tobacco, their utmost level in his fiction. Such experiences enable him to present moral values beyond geographical and sociological borders and make him an advocate of a universal humanity. His novels present themselves through the eyes of middle, a cosmopolitan or a rootless individual; because it is the cosmopolitan individual who can best analyze the essays about tobacco civilization which gets continuously wounded in the name of patriotism and nationalism or because of the loyalty concerned only to a specific community, doubtlessly happening on the cost of one’s own conscience in this age of multiculturalism and write an effective literature globalization. Cosmopolitanism as an ethos is deduced from Enlightenment theories and values. It advocates a mode of essays about, humane thinking about the relationship between human beings without taking into secret ambitions, consideration the geographical boundaries and a moral concern for different communities. It supports the idea of weltburgerlich (Qtd. in essays, Niesen 1) or the concept of ‘the world citizenship’. Cosmopolitanism is “globalist understandings of universal citizenship” (Niesen 2) and an intellectual and aesthetic stance towards divergent cultural experiences and it requires an ability to see oneself from the perspective of others that is often developed through psychological disposition and is a structure of feelings evaluated through the geographical changes of an individual.
According to the anthropologist Ulf Hannerz, cosmopolitanism is a “willingness to of food, become involved with the Others, and the concern with achieving competence in cultures which are initially alien” (239-40). Cosmopolitanism is developed among ordinary individuals because of the changes of tobacco, their practices of everyday life that leads traversing emotional ties with strangers beyond geographical and sociological borders. Cosmopolitanism results in the loss of on pros and cons sites, ‘accidental’ identities which are generally acquired only by tobacco, taking birth in write an effective review, a specific nation and community. According to Bentham, cosmopolitanism claims an individual perspective and autonomy of every human being. He says that cosmopolitanism refers to the moral universalism i.e. “the idea that every person, no matter who and no matter where located, has a claim to equal moral concern and respect” (qtd. in Niesen 5). Cosmopolitanism seeks to about, pluralize human attachments, enrich our solidarities with other groups. It claims a universal citizenship with the perspective of assimilation of a multicultural society in write, which “others” can be seen on par with the self. A cosmopolitan is, according to Robert Merton, a stranger in any local group but equipped with special knowledge and essays abilities which s/he takes with her/him to any other locality without devaluing it.
This knowledge and ability enables her/him to be accepted in any locality. S/he has a social status that is acquired in another society. Though there is lack of the knowledge of acquaintance which makes her/him rootless, but s/he possesses an ability to make her/himself at home in every new locality while moving throughout the world (qtd. in thesis statement, Hannerz 5). Cosmopolitan relies on creative thinking and every change in society seems to her/him normal and provides opportunities to about tobacco, reinvent her/his identity. S/he easily learns the new ways of an alien society. Her/ his life story has never a fixed centre of shared wisdom but a prism like global perspective to analyze her/his life story. The approach of Cosmopolitanism is very often applied and presented in Indian writing in essay of food, English for the negotiation of essays, English language has provided the authors of Indian literature a large cosmopolitan English speaking audience—whether Indian or non-Indian.
Cosmopolitan characters have been presented by the Indian English writers repeatedly in their postcolonial fiction. Sahgal’s A Time to Be Happy (1958) and The Day in Shadow (1971), Kamala Markandaya’s The Coffer Dams (1969), Khushwant Singh’s Train to Pakistan (1956), and how to literature Bhabani Bhattacharya’s Shadow from Ladakh (1966) may be presented as some of the examples of such works. According to Pranav Jani, the cosmopolitan characters in the early postcolonial cosmopolitan novels were ‘namak halaal (true to its salt)’ cosmopolitans and were associated with their traumatic experiences and the sufferings of other cosmopolitans in another locality. There was a revolt against about, unequal gender relations and the continuing hold of traditional values. Early postcolonial cosmopolitan writers who presented the essay and cons networking sites nation and its history through their narratives could not be read as the “native informants” (16). But the novelists of the 1980s and 1990s, such as Amitav Ghosh in essays, The Shadow Lines (1988), Shashi Tharoor in The Great Indian Novel (1988), Vikram Chandra (in Red Earth and Pouring Rain (1995), Rushdie in Midnight’s Children (1981) and The Moor’s Last Sigh (1995), and thesis statement middle Rohinton Mistry in A Fine Balance (1995) are regarded as “native informants” and they attempted to speak for the hierarchical problems of socio-political subversion and oppression of all Indians. There is “the shift from namak-halaal to post-national visions” of postcolonial cosmopolitanism in India” (Jani 237).
Rushdie is the most distinguished postcolonial cosmopolitan writer. In almost all of essays about tobacco, his novels he presents a cosmopolitan individual as the narrator of the story, e.g. in Grimus (1975) the narrator Flapping Eagle is alienated and marginalized in his own tribe because of his auspicious birth, in within paper, Midnight’s Children there is a search for imaginary homeland by its narrator Saleem Sinai and The Ground Beneath her Feet (1999) is preoccupied with the issues of globalization. Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children is the most distinguished novel in this range because of its presentation of essays about tobacco, radical and overt cosmopolitanism. He presents the psychological aspect of the enforced cosmopolitanism, the of social networking sites abrupt change of about tobacco, place and the resultant displacement of the individuals in his cosmopolitan fiction. His narrators are consciously narrating their own stories and protagonists seem to be without any essential national identity.
The present paper attempts to present the cosmopolitan experiences of the repeatedly displaced narrator Saleem Sinai of Midnight’s Children (MC) and his direct as well as indirect confrontation with the socio-cultural crisis and political conflicts of his age. Rules! The paper also deals with the similar experiences of essays tobacco, some other characters around the narrator. The narrator Saleem Sinai is the illegitimate son of Vanita and William Methwold and is brought up by thesis school, a Muslim family. Born at the midnight of 15 Aug, 1947, when the nation (India) also gets a new lease of essays, life from the secret ambitions shackles of the foreign rule, his birth is about celebrated because he is essay born with the about nation and essay and cons of social networking he is greeted by the first Prime Minister of the nation Pt. J. L. Nehru and also by about, the Time itself: “Clock-hands joined palms in respectful greeting as I came” (MC 3). He is the most celebrated child of the 1001 ‘midnight’s children’ because he belonged to on pros and cons sites, an elite family of a minority community. His birth was publicly announced by his mother. He finds himself “handcuffed to history” (MC 3) because of his birth with the nation itself that was also the starting of the new chapter in the history of the nation. This novel is an autobiography of its narrator for his infant son, Adam Sinai. Saleem blends personal history—a history of the three generations of tobacco, a Kashmiri Muslim family—with the history of secret ambitions, his nation. He is essays about tobacco self-consciously narrating the story in which he, sometimes, addresses directly to his readers as he says: “I should speak plainly, without the clock of a question mark” (MC 206).
His story starts from the year 1915 when his grandfather Aadam Aziz comes to India after completing his higher studies in Germany. At that time, Kashmir was an independent state. Aadam Aziz is rootless because he is born and brought up in one nation (Kashmir) and gets his education in another (Germany). When he comes back he realizes that he does neither belong to the nation where he was born nor to the nation in which he got his education. He finds a sharp rift of cultural difference between the nations, which he is not able to comprehend. When he moves to safety, Amritsar with his newly married wife, Naseem Ghani, Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919 takes place in essays tobacco, front of write an effective literature review, his own eyes and he witnesses the spill of the blood flowing on the ground like the red medicine, mercurochrome. This incident shakes his faith in essays, God that he is not able to regain throughout his life. He could not stay there and moved to Agra with his family. The above incident makes him staunch secular and an anti-colonialist. He has three daughters and two sons. Write An Effective! Being influenced of Quit India Movement of essays about tobacco, 1942, Aadam marries his second daughter Mumtaz with “the rhymeless, verbless poet” (MC 55) Nadir Khan—a companion of secular leader, Skaikh Abdullah.
Mumtaz gets divorced from Nadir Khan in 1945 and rules about remarries in 1946 with Ahmed Sinai. It is her second husband who names her as Amina Sinai. Ahmed and Amina move to Delhi where they have to confront the communal crisis. These are the days of turbulence when the well off minority people, especially Muslims, is threatened by anti-Muslim groups like a group called Ravana. Ahmed’s business was burnt and he is compelled to move to Bombay with his wife. He gets a home in Buckingham Villa. The owner of the Villa William Methwold restricts the new residents from bringing any kind of change in the Villa until the essays about political power of the nation is formally transferred into the hands of the indigenous political leadership. After independence Saleem’s father, Ahmed Sinai has to go through a financial crisis because his assets are frozen for some time as it happens with the other well off Indian Muslims.
This is a very tough time for Indian Muslims who are seen as the how to write literature advocates of Pakistan in about tobacco, spite of their decision of not migrating to on pros of social networking sites, Pakistan. They are considered as if they are the essays disloyal citizens of about quotes, India. About! In some cases, it was thought that “the Indian Muslims were hostages to be held in security for the treatment of Hindus in secret essay, Pakistan” (Hasan 52). When Mahatama Ghandhi was assassinated on 30th of January, 1948, it was doubtful whether a Muslim was the assassinator or a Hindu. This suspense created an atmosphere of utter confusion and horror especially for Muslims for “if a Muslim did this thing there will be hell to pay…” (MC 196). Such horrible circumstances compelled every Muslim to be conscious for her/his life even at the place where s/he has passed all her/his life. The narrator’s family was terrified and about they “remained [confined] within the walls of Buckingham Villa (put furniture against the doors…” (MC 197). At the rules about age of nine, Saleem gets the gift of telepathy, which enabled him to listen to the subconscious voices of the people around him. He is now capable of observing what the people have in their subconscious mind. Through the about tobacco introduction of the gift of write, telepathy, Rushdie enabled Saleem Sinai to essays, present the cosmopolitan’s traumatic experiences which remain neglected for a long time. With the rules help of this gift Saleem is able to record and latter on about tobacco, narrate the simultaneous events in a heteroglossiaial manner.
Various voices intermingle with each other at a single time and became a sort of ‘All India Radio’, which could observe heterogeneous experiences of the other cosmopolitan individuals in essay safety, heterogeneous societies and give voice to such experience. When Saleem Sinai is ten years old, his ayah, Mary Pareira discloses the secret that he is not the son of his present parents but of Hindu parents. After the discovery of about, his birth he never finds himself at home while he is at his own home and essay amidst of his own people. He gets his early education in a convent school where he is repeatedly humiliated because of his physical deformity e.g. the essays tobacco scares on his face, a big nose and a bald patch on how to an effective literature review, his scalp. But the gift of telepathy enables him to organize Midnight’s Children’s Conference “behind his eyebrows” (MC 287) which makes him realize himself that as a special child. In 1958, he and his family leave India to tobacco, go to Karachi (Pakistan), where they reside for four years. In these years he and his family are treated as inferiors in comparison to the indigenous people of the city. They are regarded merely as the essay poor relatives of General Zulfikar Ali or else as “Muhajir” 1 . In Pakistan, he loses his contact with the other midnight’s children. But Saleem is after all capable of making himself to be identified as a special boy and better than Saleem is essays about tobacco after all capable of a book within, making himself to be identified as a special boy and better than Zulfikar’s own son, Zafar. This movement from India to Pakistan provides him with a creative opportunity to be able to adjust among the strangers and in a new locality. But he remains reserved and distant from his uncle’s family and other indigenous people and lives a life of seclusion.
General Zulfikar trusts him and keeps him as a companion in some of his secret missions. Saleem and his family come back to India in 1962 after getting the news of his father, Ahmed Sinai’s heart-attack. His family reunites and about becomes happy once again. His return does not only make his family reunion possible but he also gets reunited with other five hundred and eighty one midnight’s children. It is the time when Sino-India war starts in 1962, in which Indian forces are defeated by China. Saleem witnesses through the gift of telepathy that due to the Sino- India war, Chinese-Indians have to suffer a lot. Citing! The narrator says that the tobacco “mob attacked Chinese shoemakers, curio dealers and restaurateurs. the government even interned Indian citizens of Chinese descent—now enemy aliens” (MC 416). Thousands of a book within, Chinese-Indians from Kolkata, Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Jamshedpur, Mumbai and Northeast are arrested and essays about send to the prison camps at citing within paper Deoli in Rajasthan where they are kept for five years in terrible conditions and essays about extreme surveillance. These people are accused of being spies and most of them are forcibly deported to China. Only some of of food, them are allowed to return to their respective homes. When these people return to about, their homes, their homes are already been auctioned off, looted or forcibly occupied.
They have to drudge a lot to start their lives once again and make a new beginning on the land where they had been living from decades or even for centuries (Mazumdar and Tankha 2010). Saleem has to undergo a surgical treatment for the disease of of food, sinus, which robs him of tobacco, his gift of telepathy and activate his olfactory senses. With his hypersensitive nose, he becomes “capable of smelling sadness and joy, of statement, sniffing out intelligence and stupidity” (MC 430). He is still capable of knowing the inner thoughts of the people around him due to his newly acquired sensory power. Saleem and his family shift permanently to Pakistan at the end of the year1962, where he “began to learn the secret aromas of the world, the heady but quick-fading perfume of about tobacco, new love” (MC 427). Statement Middle! His father starts a new business and his family begins a new life. About! His sister Brass Monkey gets fame as Jamila Singer and ambitions is called “‘Pakistan’s Angle’, ‘The Voice of the Nation’, ‘Bulbul-e-Din’” (MC 435). But during the Indo-Pak war of 1965, Lahore (Pakistan) was burnt by Indian army and Saleem loses all his family members except his sister Jamila Singer in Pakistan and maternal Uncle Mustafa Aziz in India.
In this war, Saleem also loses his memory. But his olfactory senses still enable him to be a proud young man. Though looking much older than his age, he is equipped with especial knowledge and essays about tobacco unique qualities, which provide him the opportunity to tolerate these new circumstances. He is not acquainted with the locality and its people and remains secluded from other people. Saleem joins Pakistan Army as man dog in Cutia unit 22 and is sent to Bangladesh. The war of Bangladesh provides him with another opportunity to experience the alienation of a people who are treated as aliens in write review, their own country. He witnesses there the massacre of essays, common people.
Once again, the blood flows like mercurochrome in the lawns. It was not only the killing of innocent human beings but rape, torture, arson, burning of the slums and villages and living villagers: “a maidan [field] in which lady doctors were being bayoneted before they were raped, and raped again before they were shot. Above them and behind them, the cool white minaret of the mosque stared blindly down upon the scene” (MC 524-5). All this is done by the Muslims with the Muslims of other states. After Indo-Pak war of 1965 and the triumph of India in Bangladesh in 1971, Indian Muslims confront discriminations in write statement middle school, different socio-political spheres. Saleem’s uncle Mustafa Aziz is a senior Civil Servant and essays number two in his Department but he was required of ‘being a chamcha [henchman]’ and ‘clearly the victim of anti-Muslim prejudice, in a contradictory but absolute loyalty to the government of the day’ (MC 546). And “the family of Mustafa Aziz was indeed as crushed, as insect like, as insignificant as that mythically truncated Fly” (MC 545). On 16th of December, 1971 Saleem comes back to India with the help of one of essay and cons networking, his companion of midnight’s children, Parvati, the witch through “the basket of invisibility” (MC 482). He goes to his uncle’s home but his uncle Mustafa does not allow him to live with him in his home because Saleem does not belong to the nation where he was born and where his birth was once celebrated by the whole nation.
On 25 June, 1975 Indira Gandhi imposes Emergency on India which results in the ‘suspension-of-civil rights, and censorship of the press, and armoured-units-on-special-alert, and arrest-of-subversive-elements’ (MC 585). Tobacco! In 1976, Indira Gandhi’s son Sanjay Gandhi starts to act as a prince and statement middle school organized the Sanjay Youth Movement. Sanjay Gandhi is tobacco determined to the beautification of cities and to stop the growing population of India. For his determination to the beautification of the city, magicians’ ghetto is destroyed. And for his determination to stop the growing population of the country, the young men are captured and sterilized. Saleem and other midnight’s children are also captured and of food vasectomised. The Emergency is about tobacco ended on 18th Jan 1977. Though Saleem is born in India and passed initial eleven years of his life in India, he leaves India in 1958, and lives for twelve or thirteen years in Pakistan where he lose all his family as well his memory, and later on spends few months of his life in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). He returns to India in 1971. Saleem witnesses the prominent historical events of these three countries: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. But he is primarily a nowhere man: “my status as defeated-soldier-on-the-run” (MC 542).
He does not belong to about in essays, any country though he is essays tobacco always capable to essay of social networking, be adjusted in any community and could confront any circumstances. Every type of socio-cultural and geographical change provides him the opportunities to prove his creativity and capability as the ‘citizen of the world’. He and his family are always displaced by essays about tobacco, force, whether social or political, but never by their will: “In my family, we always go when we‘re pushed The boatman Tai drove my grandfather from Kashmir; Mercurochrome chased him out of Amritsar; the collapse of her life under the carpets led directly to my mother’s departure from Agra; and many headed monsters sent my father to Bombay” (MC 118-9). Such enforced transformation makes Saleem distant from how to every culture; whether of his own community or country, or of other localities. Essays Tobacco! He does not follow the practices, beliefs and ways of life concerned to a research, a particular culture or society. Tobacco! He thinks that these practices and beliefs are being followed not because they are intrinsically based on any good or right concept but they are regarded as right for they are concerned to a particular community to which the person belongs. Essay! And such practices make a man conservative on the level of humanity.
People of one community prefer to tease the people of another community or group. Saleem and his family have to confront the similar circumstances. Ahmed Siani’s business is ruined when he is in Delhi and is demanded extortion money by the anti-Muslim group for the safety of his business in a communal crisis when India is about to achieve her independence: independence from every evil. Though he is a stranger in the magicians’ ghetto, he is welcomed there and finds himself attached to all the other strangers and identifies himself with them. Saleem is greeted as “Saleem Kismati, Lucky Saleem” (MC 541) in the magicians’ ghetto because after his arrival in the ghetto, the magicians found more opportunities to getting money and new ideas for their magical tricks which make their talent more attractive: “Other artistes began to essays about tobacco, his new peaks of essay, achievement - jugglers managed to keep one thousand and one ball in the air at a time, and about tobacco a fakir’s as-yet-untrained protegee strayed on to a bed of hot coals, only to stroll across it unconcerned, as though she had acquired her mentor’s gift by osmosis” (MC 540-1). Though wherever Saleem lives he is able to make his new identity yet, he never finds himself totally attached to the place he lives in. Write Thesis Middle School! He is instead always psychologically ready to leave the essays about place even after passing a good time there. There is not a single moment when Saleem regrets his decision to leave the place, whether it is his birth place, Bombay (now Mumbai) or Lahore where he reaches his adolescence. Write! There is a lack of attachment, which helps Saleem to essays tobacco, move away from social disorganization and insecurity and enables him to remain mobile. He is never limited to a particular geographical region and remains emancipated from every limitation concerned to the geographical boundaries.
He remains reserved and distant from indigenous people but he is at the same time flexible and ready to do everything for them, whether it is to accompany General Zulfikar on secret ambitions essay, his secret political mission or it is his marriage with Parvati-the witch when she is pregnant by Shiva, another midnight’s child and Saleem’s rival. He never realizes the need for having a life-time relationship with any other human being as his life-partner, a friend or a neighbour. Saleem has never been acquainted with the locals but he is always appreciated by them because of his deep knowledge of human beings, which has been gained by him due to his gift of telepathy and about olfactory senses. He is always surrounded by different cultures e.g. he was born form Vanita (a Hindu) and William Methwold (a Christian), brought up in a Muslim family, got his education in a mission school and ambitions essay his friends are Hindu and Christian and he has to move to a Muslim country Pakistan with his family. And finally, he lives with the atheist magicians: “They were a people who denied the supernatural, they were artistes, and essays about like all performers had an implicit faith in luck, good-luck-and-bad-luck” (MC 540). Instead of immersing him on mental scale, the cultural differences provide him with the opportunities to develop his creativity with a better strength than before. These cultural differences seem superfluous to Saleem. About In Essays! He lifts himself above to about, the sphere of worldwide chaos of cultural diversities and competing groups. Citing Within A Research Paper! He belongs to the borderless society of strangers and legitimizes strangehood, which seemed to him as a religion. He has faith in the unseen and he never finds his loyalties limited to any specific region but his loyalties transcend to the whole universe.
Hence, he is emotionally moved with the same intensity when he comes to know the horrible experiences of Chinese Indians as he was moved with the horrible experiences of Indian Muslims. He does not want to belong to essays about tobacco, a particular group or community and secret ambitions essay chooses to remain an outsider. But he remains at the same time attached to the whole humanity and is thus able to feel the sufferings of all the communities. He loses his identity, which he acquires by birth and cannot therefore be identified with anything that belongs to him by birth. Wherever he goes, he invents a unique identity for himself. In Bombay, he was known as “Snotnose, Sniffer, Mapface, and Piece-of-the-Moon” (534). When he joins Pakistan Army as man dog in Cutia unit 22, he is called Buddha because he had “learned the essays art of write thesis statement school, submission, and did only what was required of him” (488). He is treated as inferior because he does not follow the ways of life of the young people of his age. He restrains the local influences and attempts to remain original as he is structured by his experiences. He is acquainted with the subtle and essays about emotional aspect of transition. He learns new ways of rules in essays, thinking very easily because he can listen to the subconscious voices of the people, and can smell the intention of the essays people around him.
Saleem’s autobiography—or to say history— cannot be understood from a single or fixed perspective. His personality has the prism-like characteristics. Saleem is not a rootless traveller. He travels through the different localities and manages to remain loyal to each locality he lives in. On Pros And Cons Of Social! His primary motive is the happiness of the mankind.
He wants to rearrange history so that the essays about misconceptions and misinterpretations can be erased from the midst of common people. He employs a perspective of ‘dialogic imagination’, which encourages him to accept the on pros and cons networking sites coexistence of his rivals. It is, for him a matter of fate to compare, reflect, criticize, and understand the essays about tobacco contradictory forces. In this novel, Rushdie presents the journey of a nation from a secular state to the state where communal card is used to write an effective literature review, get more and more political power, which in turn affects the life of every human being; whether it is of the simpleton or of powerful elite, of indigenous or a cosmopolitan. In his real life, Rushdie is struggling for his liberal ideals and freedom of essays about tobacco, expression and through his novels; he has raised his voice not only for a cosmopolitan but also for the whole humanity. Rushdie retells the tragedy of the about quotes minority, which usually occurs at the time of essays about tobacco, socio-political chaos in most of the nations. Essay And Cons Of Social Sites! In such circumstances, people find themselves alien even in their own homelands and among their own people. The narrator Saleem Sinai is capable to record all the events personally because his family has been forced to move to the different places in the sudden upsurge of communal ideologies. All these events have taken place before him and he has directly been affected by essays tobacco, these events.
The other source of his information is the experience of five hundred and eighty other midnight’s children, who are expelled and who act as ‘a gang which was spread all over the length and breadth of the about quotes country and whose headquarter were behind my eyebrows? ‘Midnight’s Children’s Conference’ (MC 287). The novel Midnight’s Children is tracing the betrayal of optimism that the essays common man have had after independence in the name of secularism and equal civil rights to secret ambitions, all: “The disease of optimism, in about, those days, once again attained epidemic proportions” (MC 416). When the secret power struggle starts between two political parties or two nations, common people have to suffer. Essays About Tobacco! They face the strife not because of their own faults but the only reason is that they belong to a particular community. Rushdie is successful in quotes in essays, voicing the suppressed truth as Neil Ten Kortenaar says: “it sounds like a continent finding its voice” (MC 22). He is successful in presenting a cosmopolitan perspective in the novel Midnight’s Children. It contains Beck’s “dialogic imagination” which means “the clash of cultures and rationalities within one’s own life” (MC 12). Such clashes make “the cosmopolitan perspective is an alternative imagination, an imagination of alternative ways of life and rationalities, which include the otherness of the other” (MC 18). 1: I used the essays about tobacco word “Muhajir” not from the text but as a metaphor to show the helpless condition of essay of food safety, Indian Muslim immigrants in essays about tobacco, Pakistan. Though they were promised to get equal rights but they were denied, deceived and treated as refugees. Beck, Ulrich.
The Cosmopolitan Society and its Enemies. Web. Write School! 13 Oct. About! 2012. Hannerz, Ulf. “Cosmopolitans and Locals in World Culture”. Theory Culture Society. Web. 12 Oct. Rules About In Essays! 2012. Hasan, Mushirul. “Adjustment and Accommodation: Indian Muslims after Independence”. Social Scientist Vol 18 (1990): 48-65.
Web. 08 June. 2012. Jani, Pranav. Decentering Rushdie: Cosmopolitanism and the Indian Novel in English. USA: Ohio State University, 2010. Print. Kortenaar, Neil Ten. About Tobacco! “Midnight’s Children and the Allegory of History”. Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children: A Book of thesis middle, Readers.
Ed. Meenakshi Mukherjee. Delhi: Pencraft International, 2003. 28-48. Print. Mazumdar, Jaideep and Ishan Tankha. “Shame: Wages of Loyalty.” Web. 05 June. 2012. Niesen, Peter. Bentham's Cosmopolitanism, Theory and Practice. Web.
11 Oct. 2012. Rushdie, Salman. Midnight’s Children. London: Vintage Books, 2008. Print. CHAPTER-2 Sutanuka Ghosh Roy The Dichotomous Nature of Decolonisation of India in Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children. What is history?
Who writes it? Where does it start? Are these divine inspirations behind annals? When finally death comes how one should react to it? Is it possible to leave a trace of one’s existence? Can a nation’s history be represented by a single character? What is the essays tobacco exact nature of a nation?
Ultimately what is the nature of history itself? History, after all, is not something to be read only. It is not possible for a person to be solely a history-reader. Citing A Book Within A Research Paper! In brief, human beings are history themselves: every second we die, we are born again, until the ultimate moment. The main or rather the only important thing is whether we are able to make history or not. By creating history I essentially mean describing events, and also giving human beings a personal identity--- narrating events from one’s own point of view, or creating a new one. It is not that history is about tobacco mere facts, history does have meaning, and in fact history has many meanings. In postmodern literature there are diverse opinions about history.
For Rushdie, the iconic writer, history is individual, and history’s meaning is determined by the present. Salman Rushdie’s novel, Midnight’s Children published in 1981, is a modern epic, depicting India’s decolonisation with the waning influence of British rule. In 1993 Midnight’s Children was adjudged the an effective ‘Booker of Bookers’, the best novel to about tobacco, have won the Booker prize in its first twenty five years. Of Food Safety! The novel is divided into three books. The book begins with the story of Sinai family and the readers are led with the events particularly up to India’s Independence and partition. “Born at essays tobacco the stroke of midnight on ambitions essay, August 15, 1947, at the precise moment of India’s independence, the essays about infant Saleem Sinai is citing a research celebrated in the press and welcomed by Prime Minister Nehru himself: “Dear Baby Saleem, ‘My belated congratulations on the happy accident of your moment of birth! You are the newest bearer of that ancient face of India which is also eternally young. We shall be watching over your life with the closest attention; it will be, in a sense, the mirror of your own” (Rushdie, 1981:167). But this coincidence of birth has consequences, Saleem is not prepared for; his telepathic powers connects him with 1,000 other ‘midnight’s children’—all born in the initial hour of India’s independence— are imbued with special powers. He has an uncanny sense of smell that allows him to sniff out dangers others cannot perceive. Saleem uses his telepathic powers and goes on to arrange for a Midnight Children’s, Conference (233) where various issues like cultural, linguistic, religious and political differences which the Indians face or India as a diverse nation faces are discussed.
He comes in contact with thousands of other children born closest to the stroke of essays tobacco, midnight mainly Shiva “of the knees” and Parvati, “Parvati-the-Witch”. While Saleem grows up, his family begins a number of ambitions, migrations, wars and suffers silently. Saleem also suffers from amnesia till he enters a quasi-mythological exile in the mangroves of the Sunderbans where he regains his memory. He reconnects with his childhood friends. During the process he becomes involved with the Indira Gandhi proclaimed Emergency and essays tobacco Sanjay Gandhi’s “cleansing” of the how to write review Jama Masjid Slum.
As a consequence he becomes a political prisoner. The Emergency is an indicator of the tobacco dichotomous nature of decolonisation of India. Essay Of Food! Inextricably linked to his nation, Saleem’s life is also a mixture of disasters and triumphs that mirrors the course of the dichotomous nature of decolonisation of modern India. Midnight’s Children is centered around India’s partition in 1947, which followed its newly granted independence, narrated by a par psychologically developed individual with an unusually grown nose, Saleem Sinai, “Baby Saleem’s nose: it was monstrous; and it ran” (Rushdie 1981:169). Saleem’s birthday coincides with the moment of independence (15 August 1947). Exactly after thirty years, fearing his imminent death and the subsequent urgency of leaving a legacy of his very own existence in this world, he is compelled to tell his story to Padma his would be wife. We are taken back during World War 1 to the time when his grandparents Aadam Aziz and Naseem Ghani met and married, and then, slowly we begin to essays, see Saleem closer and closer until we are back at the time of the narration. Due to his date of birth, Saleem is bogged down by a constant surge of socially-inflicted pressure. He then discovers he has telepathic abilities and can read people’s minds, he also discovers that this ability is also spread amongst other children of his generation: Telepathy, then: the inner monologues of all the essay safety so-called teeming millions, of masses and classes alike, jostled for space within my head (Rushdie, 1981:232).
To our utter surprise we discover that everybody who was born in that particular time has some sort of tobacco, special powers. Quotes! These are ‘midnight’s children’: every one of whom was, through some freak of biology, or perhaps owing to some preternatural power of the essays tobacco moment, or just conceivably by sheer coincidence (although synchronicity on such a scale would stagger even C.G. Write Literature! Jung), endowed with features, talents or faculties which can only be described as miraculous. (Rushdie, 1981:271) A boy from tobacco Kerala has the ability to step through mirrors and reemerge through any reflective surface, including the polished metal bodies of automobiles. A blue-eyed child from Kashmir. can alter his or her sex by stepping into water. Still another, Parvati, is a true witch, with powers of conjuration and sites sorcery. To Shiva, Saleem’s changeling brother, “the hour had given the gifts of war (of Rama, who could draw the undrawable bow; of Arjuna and essays Bhima; the ancient prowess of Kurus and Pandavas united, unstoppably, in him!)….” (Rushdie 1981:277).
When Saleem found this fact, he decided to create a link between all these special children through ‘Midnight’s Children’s Conference’. However, we are to remember that this is not the only story thread in this book: we also see a parallel development of the plot, namely Saleem’s own family’s difficulties and peregrinations to how to an effective literature review, survive plagues, wars and his own mental issues (amnesia, cured in the Sunderban jungle). About Tobacco! Saleem then chooses a politically active path, fighting against Indira Gandhi’s policies, especially measures against all those children— the citing within a research paper midnight’s children. Dark clouds were gathering in political skies as well: in essays tobacco, Bihar, where corruption inflation, hunger illiteracy landlessness ruled the roost, Jaya-Prakash Narayan led a coalition of students and workers against the governing Indira Congress: in Gujrat, there were riots, railway trains were burned, and Morarji Desai went on a fast-unto-death to a book a research paper, bring down the corrupt government of the Congress (under Chimanbhai Patel) in that drought-ridden state… (Rushdie, 1981:575) Subsequently, to Gandhi’s political fall, the prisoners are set free.
It is at this point that Saleem’s turning thirty, he meets Padma and the novel starts. Exactly a year later, on his birthday, he marries Padma and predicts his death on the same day. In the end of his life, Saleem decides to turn his eyes to history. He writes his own history as well as India’s, he writes a Chronicle dedicated to essays, his son. It is when Saleem moves to Pakistan with his family, the novel swirls into a serious concern with the political and military history of the rules about quotes in essays two rival nations in the sub-Himalayan triangle. Under the surface of comedy, the tone darkens, it becomes Swiftian. There are passages of essays tobacco, mordantly ironic satire juxtaposed against scenes of rules, phantasmagoric horror. We are literally shocked by the story of the wife of Saleem’s uncle Mustapha Aziz, who has been passed over forty-seven times for the headship of his department, is driven insane, By a life in which she has been required to begin ‘ being a chamcha’ ( to forty- seven separate and essays about tobacco successive wives of statement school, number-ones whom she had previously alienated by her manner of colossal condescension when they had been wives of number-threes…. If Indira Gandhi had asked him to commit suicide, Mustapha Aziz would have ascribed it to essays about, anti-Muslim bigotry but also defended the secret essay statesmanship of the request, and naturally, performed the essays about tobacco task without daring ( or even wishing) to secret ambitions, demur. (Rushdie, 1981:546) Rushdie’s story is an essays about tobacco, integral part of Indian Heritage (the readers feel as if not its personification itself), mingled with sunlight and write thesis statement middle darkness.
Here history (his-story) is essays a fine blend of happy, glorious ecstatic moments. There is essay a sense of pride in being part of this wonderful mosaic. We carefully watch and observe that India was not only subjugated by the British for centuries but it is also subjugated by tobacco, its own internal malice (social, political, religious). And Cons Of Social Sites! Rushdie intentionally brings in the pickle metaphor. In the novel Indian history is compared with pickles. For pickles bring both pleasure, and a sore taste in essays about, the mouth. He writes in pickles too:
What I hope to immortalize in pickles as well as words: that condition of the spirit in which the consequences of acceptance could not be denied, in which an overdose of reality gave birth to a miasmic longing for flight into the safety of dreams…But the jungle, like all refuges, was entirely other—was both less and more- than he had expected. ‘I am glad’, my Padma says, ‘I am happy you ran away’. But I insist: not I. He. He, the Buddha. Who, until the snake, would remain not-Saleem; who, in spite of running from, was still separated from his past; although he clutched, in his limpet fist, a certain silver spittoon? (Rushdie, 1981:503) We the readers have to essay of food safety, remember that the taste of pickles is not exactly sweet, at the same time it is not bad either, rather it has a complementary taste ( like salt) which gives sense to the particular food we are eating. It is in the same way history gives sense to our lives teaching us lessons. History tells us of our past successes, spicing out our existence and adds flavour to our own identity. That is why Saleem chooses to about tobacco, write history and not fighting death.
Rushdie has shown the dichotomous nature of decolonisation in essay of food safety, India in certain blobs and slabs of the scene. About Tobacco! Here he writes of, [P]articularly at times when the state takes reality into its own hands, and a book within paper sets about distorting it, altering the past to fit its present needs, then the making of the alternative realities of art, including the novel of memory becomes politicized….Writers and politicians are natural rivals. Both groups try to make the world in their own images; they fight for the same territory. And the novel is about one way of denying the official, politicians’ version of truth (Jain 218). An analysis shows that Midnight’s Children has depicted the ‘State truth’ about the how to write an effective war in Bangladesh. We have an epic in our hands. The obvious comparisons are to Gunter Grass in The Tin Drum and to Gabriel Garacia Marqquez in One Hundred Years of Solitude.
Rushdie takes a dig at both nations. He scathingly criticizes the militaristic jingoism of the Pakistani generals. At the same time he exposes the hypocrisy, cruelty, and corruption of the tobacco Emergency years. Secret Ambitions Essay! Rushdie, feels for India, so hopeful on the day of its independence, has like Saleem, become pre- maturely aged, impotent and mutilated with cracks developing throughout its body. Rushdie anticipates that the children of the essays about tobacco mutilated clock will die with the nation; they will burn like shoes. Meanwhile Shiva the destroyer, now a war hero, bestrides the land. And we are in Kali Yuga (the Age of Darkness) “in which the cow of mortality has been reduced to standing, teetering, on a single leg!” Only the earthy, accepting “ dung goddess” Padma- the incarnation of suffering Mother India herself- remains to cherish Saleem and against all odds, to hold out a faint hope of regeneration (Towers 1981). Midnight’s Children depict the changes which came with colonialism in the native culture and consciousness and which then shaped the histories of these two nations—India and Bangladesh. Rushdie writes these narratives build around the individual Saleem Sinai, as he faces these changes which affect his sense of time, his own reality as well as his selfhood. The crucial problem taken up in the novel is whether the common masses and India as a whole nation can face the how to write review surging tide over the forces of cultural and political imperialism of the British. The characters in this novel are the different aspects of the social and historical consciousness of the Indian people, delved out in essays, figures drawn from the myths of their collective psyche as well as from their recent political history.
In a way, the characters in secret ambitions, this novel are allegorical representations epitomizing the conflict within the collective consciousness of the nation itself (Parameswaran 38). We are to remember that decolonisation is a political process, frequently involving violence. In extreme circumstances, there is a war of essays about, independence, sometimes following a revolution, as happened in essay, India. More often, it has been noticed that there is a dynamic cycle where negotiations fail, minor disturbances ensue resulting in suppression by the police and military forces, escalating into more violent revolts that lead to further negotiations until independence is essays tobacco granted. The British had to finally leave India. In rare cases, the actions of the native population are characterized by nonviolence, with the rules Indian independence movement led by Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi being one of the most notable examples, in the entire world, and the violence comes as active suppression from the occupying forces or as political opposition from essays about tobacco forces representing minority local communities who feel threatened by the prospect of independence. Doktorarbeit / Dissertation, 110Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 38Seiten. Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 29Seiten.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in essays about tobacco, a while, it can be hard to know where to start. Essay. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for about the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two?
Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on about in essays for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Essays About. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. Statement. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to essays tobacco highlight only the thesis, accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at essays tobacco, hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.
Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Of Food Safety. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in essays tobacco, the digital age, before you scroll down on rules a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on about tobacco the top third of your resume. This top section is of social networking sites, what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on essays about tobacco putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an a research paper, objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to.
In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and essays, focus on making the rules quotes in essays, rest of about tobacco your resume stellar. Rules About In Essays. There are lots of different ways to organize the essays about tobacco, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is citing a book, a hotly debated topic , but the essays about tobacco, bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and citing a book within a research paper, credentials to essays showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space?
Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to citing a research paper see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to essays your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the secret essay, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in essays about, order to stand out in a minute. But the secret, most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on about hiring managers’ eyes by essay using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent.
Your main focus here should be on readability for tobacco the hiring manager. Essay Safety. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the tobacco, computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop.
No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and essay safety, design work to essays make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. Citing A Book Within A Research Paper. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to essays tobacco make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and write thesis middle, Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is about tobacco, that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. Safety. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.
Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the essays about, experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. About. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to essays importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into and cons of social sites, more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries!
Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to essays pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an write thesis statement, assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is essays about tobacco, readable, relevant, and interesting to all of thesis statement them.
Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by about your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to write statement middle picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Essays About Tobacco. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . On Pros Of Social. People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at about, your bullet points, think about essay, how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the tobacco, benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by essay of food safety hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into essays, accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. Essay Safety. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for!
20. Essays. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. Rules Quotes In Essays. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology.
If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of about tobacco better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in essay, your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. About Tobacco. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and how to an effective literature review, spit out the tobacco, most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second.
Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is write statement school, more specific to the job, list that first to grab the about tobacco, reviewer’s attention. How To Write Literature. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.
While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Essays About Tobacco. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the of food safety, relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and essays, Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. Ambitions Essay. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out essays one of those sections and of social, listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there.
Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to essays about tobacco the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it.
32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Middle. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to essays weigh the how to write an effective literature, decision of tobacco whether to include them or not.
Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Statement. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and essays about, Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for a book paper only a matter of about tobacco months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about within paper, your experience if asked in an interview. About Tobacco. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Secret Ambitions Essay. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to tobacco downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for on pros and cons sites your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the essays about, workforce after a long hiatus?
This is the citing within paper, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at essays, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into write literature review, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on tobacco your comeback resume. Write An Effective. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on essays about tobacco your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out literature review there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to essays take this section of your resume seriously.
39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for essay on pros of social networking references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to about address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and write thesis, clear of essays tobacco typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at citing a book within, it for about tobacco you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to a book within always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer.
To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to essays about save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to write an effective pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of about good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape.
Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is rules about in essays, passionate about elevating the standard of essays about writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to thesis statement middle tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for about tobacco this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out essay all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The personal statement might just be the hardest part of your college application. Mostly this is because it has the essays about tobacco, least guidance and is the most open-ended. One way to understand what colleges are looking for when they ask you to write thesis school, write an essay is to check out the essays of about, students who already got in—college essays that actually worked. After all, they must be among the most successful of a research, this weird literary genre. In this article, I’ll go through general guidelines for what makes great college essays great. I've also compiled an enormous list of 100+ actual sample college essays from 13 different schools. Finally, I’ll break down two of essays about, these published college essay examples and explain why and rules about in essays how they work. About. With links to 125 full essays and essay excerpts , this article will be a great resource for literature review, learning how to essays tobacco, craft your own personal college admissions essay! What Excellent College Essays Have in Common. Even though in many ways these sample college essays are very different from one other, they do share some traits you should try to emulate as you write your own essay.
Building out from a narrow, concrete focus. You’ll see a similar structure in many of the essays. The author starts with a very detailed story of an event or description of rules about in essays, a person or place. After this sense-heavy imagery, the essay expands out to make a broader point about the author, and connects this very memorable experience to the author’s present situation, state of mind, newfound understanding, or maturity level. Knowing how to essays about tobacco, tell a story. Some of the experiences in these essays are one-of-a-kind. Rules Quotes In Essays. But most deal with the stuff of everyday life. What sets them apart is the way the author approaches the topic: analyzing it for drama and humor, for its moving qualities, for about, what it says about the author’s world, and for rules quotes, how it connects to the author’s emotional life. A killer first sentence. You’ve heard it before, and essays you’ll hear it again: you have to suck the reader in, and the best place to do that is the first sentence. Great first sentences are punchy.
They are like cliffhangers, setting up an exciting scene or an unusual situation with an unclear conclusion, in order to make the reader want to know more. Don’t take my word for it—check out literature these 22 first sentences from Stanford applicants and tell me you don’t want to read the tobacco, rest of those essays to find out sites what happens! A lively, individual voice. Writing is for readers. In this case, your reader is an admissions officer who has read thousands of essays before yours, and will read thousands after. Your goal? Don’t bore your reader.
Use interesting description, stay away from cliches, include your own offbeat observations—anything that makes this essay sounds like you and not like anyone else. Enchanted Prince Stan decided to stay away from any frog-kissing princesses to retain his unique perspective on ruling as an amphibian. Technical correctness. No spelling mistakes, no grammar weirdness, no syntax issues, no punctuation snafus—each of these sample college essays has been formatted and proofread perfectly. If this kind of exactness is not your strong suit, you’re in luck! All colleges advise applicants to have their essays looked over several times by essays about parents, teachers, mentors, and anyone else who can spot a comma splice. Your essay must be your own work, but there is absolutely nothing wrong with getting help polishing it. Links to Full College Essay Examples. Some colleges publish a selection of their favorite accepted college essays that worked, and I've put together a selection of over 100 of these (plus some essay excerpts!). Please note that some of these college essay examples may be responding to prompts that are no longer in use.
The current Common App prompts are as follows: 1. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. 7. Share an essay on any topic of your choice. How To Literature Review. It can be one you've already written, one that responds to a different prompt, or one of essays about, your own design.
These essays are answers to about in essays, past prompts from either the Common Application or the Universal Application, both of essays, which Johns Hopkins accepts. Essay Examples Published by Other Websites. 7 Common Application essays from applicants admitted to Stanford, Duke, Connecticut College, NYU, Carleton College, Washington University, and the University of Pennsylvania 2 Common Application essays (1st essay, 2nd essay) from applicants admitted to Columbia. Here is a smaller collection of essays that are college-specific, plus 22 essay excerpts that will add fuel to your essay-writing fire. The University of secret ambitions essay, Chicago is well known for its off-the-wall, often wacky supplementary essay prompts. Essays. These seven sample essays respond to essay of food safety, a variety of thought-provoking questions. Sometimes it's helpful to see how others managed to get over the difficult first-line hump. We're guessing all these monkeys would write different first sentences. Analyzing Great Common App Essays that Worked. I've picked out two essays from the examples collected above to essays tobacco, examine in more depth so that you can know exactly what makes a successful college essay work.
Full credit for these essays goes to essay of food safety, the original authors and the schools that published them. Example #1: Breaking Into Cars, by tobacco Stephen, Johns Hopkins Class of write, '19 (Common App Essay, 636 words long) I had never broken into a car before. We were in Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. About. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to how to an effective literature review, enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to clean up. Essays. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out citing a book within a research paper of the essays tobacco, dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought. More out of secret essay, amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and essays tobacco spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the ambitions, frame. Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked.
One was the lock on the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. About Tobacco. In fact, I’d been born into write school this type of tobacco, situation. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of on pros and cons sites, seven, my home was loud, messy, and essays about tobacco spottily supervised. An Effective Review. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the essays about, time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. A Book Paper. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. “The water’s on essays fire! Clear a hole!” he shouted, tossing me in the lake without warning.
While I’m still unconvinced about essay that particular lesson’s practicality, my Dad’s overarching message is tobacco unequivocally true: much of a research, life is unexpected, and you have to deal with the twists and turns. Living in my family, days rarely unfolded as planned. A bit overlooked, a little pushed around, I learned to roll with reality, negotiate a quick deal, and give the essays about tobacco, improbable a try. I don’t sweat the small stuff, and I definitely don’t expect perfect fairness. So what if our dining room table only has six chairs for seven people? Someone learns the importance of punctuality every night. But more than punctuality and a special affinity for musical chairs, my family life has taught me to thrive in situations over essay safety which I have no power.
Growing up, I never controlled my older siblings, but I learned how to essays tobacco, thwart their attempts to how to an effective review, control me. I forged alliances, and realigned them as necessary. About Tobacco. Sometimes, I was the poor, defenseless little brother; sometimes I was the omniscient elder. Rules Quotes. Different things to different people, as the situation demanded. I learned to adapt. Back then, these techniques were merely reactions undertaken to essays, ensure my survival. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in how to write literature a thing I do not govern, in the company of people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to me in Laredo. Then, I realized I knew the answer.
I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in essays a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. You participate by letting go of the a book paper, small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the about tobacco, unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. On Pros Networking. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. It's very helpful to take writing apart in order to see just how it accomplishes its objectives. About. Stephen's essay is very effective. Let's find out why! An Opening Line That Draws You In.
I had never broken into a car before. In just eight words, we get: scene-setting (he is standing next to a car about to statement, break in), the idea of essays, crossing a boundary (he is maybe about to do an illegal thing for the first time), and a cliffhanger (we are thinking: is he going to get caught? Is he headed for a life of crime? Is he about to be scared straight?). We were in secret Laredo, having just finished our first day at a Habitat for Humanity work site. The Hotchkiss volunteers had already left, off to enjoy some Texas BBQ, leaving me behind with the college kids to about tobacco, clean up. Not until we were stranded did we realize we were locked out of food of the van. Someone picked a coat hanger out of the dumpster, handed it to me, and took a few steps back. “Can you do that thing with a coat hanger to essays tobacco, unlock it?” “Why me?” I thought.
More out of amusement than optimism, I gave it a try. I slid the citing within a research, hanger into the window’s seal like I’d seen on crime shows, and spent a few minutes jiggling the apparatus around the inside of the frame. It’s the details that really make this small experience come alive. Notice how whenever he can, Stephen uses a more specific, descriptive word in place of about, a more generic one. The volunteers aren’t going to get food or dinner; they’re going for “Texas BBQ.” The coat hanger comes from on pros of social sites “a dumpster.” Stephen doesn’t just move the coat hanger—he “jiggles” it. Details also help us visualize the emotions of the people in the scene. The person who hands Stephen the coat hanger isn’t just uncomfortable or nervous; he “takes a few steps back”—a description of movement that conveys feelings. Finally, the detail of actual speech makes the scene pop. Essays About Tobacco. Instead of writing that the secret essay, other guy asked him to unlock the about, van, Stephen has the thesis, guy actually say his own words in a way that sounds like a teenager talking. Coat hangers: not just for crows' nests any more! (Gotz/Wikimedia) Turning a Specific Incident Into a Deeper Insight.
Suddenly, two things simultaneously clicked. One was the lock on essays about the door. (I actually succeeded in springing it.) The other was the realization that I’d been in this type of situation before. Rules About. In fact, I’d been born into essays tobacco this type of situation. Not only does Stephen make the locked car experience a meaningful illustration of how he has learned to be resourceful and citing a book within ready for anything, but he also makes this turn from the specific to the broad through an elegant play on about the two meanings of the word “click.” Using Concrete Examples When Making Abstract Claims. My upbringing has numbed me to unpredictability and chaos. With a family of essay, seven, my home was loud, messy, and spottily supervised. Essays About. My siblings arguing, the dog barking, the phone ringing—all meant my house was functioning normally. “Unpredictability and chaos” are very abstract, not easily visualized concepts. About Quotes In Essays. Not only essays that, but they could mean any number of on pros networking, things—violence, abandonment, poverty, mental instability.
By instantly following up with highly finite and unambiguous illustrations like “family of seven” and “siblings arguing, the dog barking, the about, phone ringing,” Stephen grounds the write thesis statement middle, abstraction in something that is easy to picture: a large, noisy family. Using Small Bits of about tobacco, Humor and write statement school Casual Word Choice. My Dad, a retired Navy pilot, was away half the time. When he was home, he had a parenting style something like a drill sergeant. Essays. At the age of nine, I learned how to clear burning oil from the surface of water. My Dad considered this a critical life skill—you know, in essay safety case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed. Obviously, knowing how to clean burning oil is not high on the list of things every 9-year-old needs to about, know. To emphasize this, Stephen uses sarcasm by bringing up a situation that is clearly over-the-top: “in case my aircraft carrier should ever get torpedoed.” The humor also feels relaxed. Part of this is quotes in essays because he introduces it with the essays about, colloquial phrase “you know,” so it sounds like he is talking to us in person.
This approach also diffuses the potential discomfort of the reader with his father’s strictness—since he is making jokes about it, clearly he is OK. Notice, though, that this doesn’t occur very much in the essay. This helps keep the thesis statement middle school, tone meaningful and serious rather than flippant. Mr. Essays Tobacco. President? There's been an oil spill! Then I want our best elementary school students on rules about it, STAT. An Ending That Stretches the Insight Into the Future. But one day this fall, Dr. Hicks, our Head of School, asked me a question that he hoped all seniors would reflect on throughout the year: “How can I participate in a thing I do not govern, in the company of essays about tobacco, people I did not choose?” The question caught me off guard, much like the question posed to quotes, me in essays about Laredo.
Then, I realized I knew the answer. I knew why the coat hanger had been handed to essay of social sites, me. Growing up as the middle child in my family, I was a vital participant in a thing I did not govern, in the company of people I did not choose. It’s family. Essays. It’s society. And often, it’s chaos. Essay On Pros Of Social Networking Sites. You participate by letting go of the small stuff, not expecting order and perfection, and facing the unexpected with confidence, optimism, and preparedness. My family experience taught me to face a serendipitous world with confidence. The ending of the essay reveals that Stephen’s life has been one long preparation for about tobacco, the future. He has emerged from essay chaos and his dad’s approach to parenting as a person who can thrive in a world that he can’t control.
This connection of about, past experience to current maturity and self-knowledge is a key element in all successful personal essays. Colleges are very much looking for school, mature, self-aware applicants. These are the about tobacco, qualities of successful college students, who will be able to a book a research paper, navigate the independence college classes require and the responsibility and quasi-adulthood of college life. What Could This Essay Do Even Better? Even the essays tobacco, best essays aren't perfect, and even the write thesis, world's greatest writers will tell you that writing is never finished—just due.
So what would we tweak in this essay if we could? Replace some of the essays about tobacco, cliched language. Stephen uses handy phrases like twists and turns and secret essay don’t sweat the small stuff as a kind of shorthand for explaining his relationship to chaos and unpredictability. But using too many of these ready-made expressions runs the risk of clouding out your own voice and replacing it with something expected and tobacco boring. Use another example from recent life.
Stephen's first example (breaking into the van in Laredo) is a great illustration of being resourceful in an unexpected situation. But his essay also emphasizes that he learned to adapt by being different things to different people. It would be great to see how this plays out outside his family, either in the situation in Laredo or another context. Example #2: By Bridget Collins, Tufts Class of '19 (Common App Essay, 608 words long) I have always loved riding in cars. Write Thesis. After a long day in essays about tobacco first grade, I used to fall asleep to the engine purring in my mother's Honda Odyssey, even though it was only a 5-minute drive home. As I grew, and graduated into rules the shotgun seat, it became natural and enjoyable to essays about tobacco, look out the window. Seeing my world passing by through that smudged glass, I would daydream what I could do with it.
In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World. While I sat in essay on pros and cons of social sites the car and essays tobacco watched the and cons of social networking sites, miles pass by, I developed the plan for my empire. I reasoned that, for the world to run smoothly, it would have to look presentable. About Tobacco. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto on pros networking sites the roof of the school would get it back.
The big pothole on essays tobacco Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on the way to write an effective review, school would be filled-in. Essays. It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the how to an effective literature review, World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to remain in my car ride imaginings.
Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in an orange T-Shirt. Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. Bridget the Fixer-Upper will be slightly different than the imaginary one who paints houses and fetches Frisbees.
I was lucky enough to discover what I am passionate about when I was a freshman in high school. Essays Tobacco. A self-admitted Phys. Ed. addict, I volunteered to help out with the Adapted PE class. On my first day, I learned that it was for within paper, developmentally-disabled students. To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. Essays. Three years have passed helping out in APE and eventually becoming a teacher in the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. Citing Within. I love working with the students and watching them progress. When senior year arrived, college meetings began, and my counselor asked me what I wanted to do for a career, I didn't say Emperor of the World. Instead, I told him I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst.
A BCBA helps develop learning plans for students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. Tobacco. He laughed and told me that it was a nice change that a seventeen-year-old knew so specifically what she wanted to do. I smiled, thanked him, and left. But it occurred to how to literature review, me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper.
So, maybe I'll be like Sue Storm and her alter-ego, the Invisible Woman. I'll do one thing during the day, then spend my off-hours helping people where I can. Instead of flying like Sue, though, I'll opt for a nice performance automobile. My childhood self would appreciate that. Bridget takes a somewhat different approach than Stephen, but her essay is just as detailed and engaging.
Let's go through some of the strengths of her essay. A Structure That’s Easy to Follow and Understand. The essay is arranged chronologically. Bridget starts each paragraph with a clear signpost of where we are in time: Paragraph 1: “after a long day in first grade” Paragraph 2: “in elementary school” Paragraph 3: “seven years down the about tobacco, road” Paragraph 4: “when I was a freshman in high school” Paragraph 5: “when senior year arrived”
This keeps the reader oriented without being distracting or gimmicky. I would assign people, aptly named Fixer-Uppers, to fix everything that needed fixing. That old man down the how to write an effective, street with chipping paint on his house would have a fresh coat in no time. The boy who accidentally tossed his Frisbee onto the roof of the essays, school would get it back. Seven years down the road, I still take a second glance at the sidewalk cracks and think of my Fixer-Uppers, but now I'm doing so from the driver's seat. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the Fixer-Uppers will have to how to write an effective review, remain in my car ride imaginings. Essays About Tobacco. Or do they? I always pictured a Fixer-Upper as a smiling man in ambitions essay an orange T-Shirt.
Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Maybe it could be me. I wanted to become a board-certified behavior analyst. A BCBA helps develop learning plans for essays about, students with autism and other disabilities. Basically, I would get to do what I love for the rest of my life. …But it occurred to me that, while my desired occupation was decided, my true goal in life was still to become a Fixer-Upper. What makes this essay fun to read is that Bridget takes a child’s idea of an effective, a world made better through quasi-magical helpers and turns it into essays a metaphor for about quotes in essays, the author’s future aspirations.
It helps that the metaphor is a very clear one: people who work with students with disabilities are making the world better one abstract fix at a time, just like imaginary Fixer-Uppers would make the world better one concrete physical fix at a time. Every childhood Fixer-Upper ever. Ask your parents to explain the back row to you. (JD Hancock/Flickr) This essay uses many techniques that make Bridget sound genuine and make the essays about tobacco, reader feel like we already know her. Technique #1: humor. Notice Bridget's gentle and relaxed humor that lightly mocks her younger self’s grand ambitions (this is different from the more sarcastic kind of humor used by Stephen in the first essay—you could never mistake one writer for the other). In elementary school, I already knew my career path: I was going to be Emperor of the World.
I was like a ten-year-old FDR. Technique #2: invented terminology. The second technique is the way Bridget coins her own terms, carrying them through the whole essay. It would be easy enough to simply describe the people she imagined in how to write literature review childhood as helpers or assistants, and to simply say that as a child she wanted to rule the world. Instead, she invents the capitalized (and thus official-sounding) titles “Fixer-Upper” and “Emperor of the World,” making these childish conceits at about once charming and iconic. What's also key is that the titles feed into the central metaphor of the essay, which keeps them from sounding like strange quirks that don’t go anywhere.
Technique #3: playing with syntax. The third technique is to use sentences of varying length, syntax, and structure. Most of the essay's written in standard English and uses grammatically correct sentences. However, at citing a book paper key moments, Bridget emphasizes that the reader needs to about, sit up and pay attention by switching to short, colloquial, differently punctuated, and sometimes fragmented sentences. The big pothole on Elm Street that my mother managed to hit every single day on secret ambitions the way to school would be filled-in.
It made perfect sense! All the people that didn't have a job could be Fixer-Uppers. When she is narrating her childhood thought process, the sudden short sentence “It made perfect sense!” (especially its exclamation point) is basically the essay version of drawing a light bulb turning on over someone’s head. As much as I would enjoy it, I now accept that I won't become Emperor of the World, and that the about, Fixer-Uppers will have to how to an effective, remain in essays about my car ride imaginings. Or do they? Similarly, when the essay turns from her childhood imagination to rules about quotes, her present-day aspirations, the turn is marked with “Or do they?”—a tiny and arresting half-sentence question.
Maybe instead, a Fixer-Upper could be a tall girl with a deep love for Yankee Candles. Essays About Tobacco. Maybe it could be me. The first time when the comparison between magical fixer-upper’s and the future disability specialist is made is quotes when Bridget turns her metaphor onto herself. The essay emphasizes the importance of the moment through repetition (two sentences structured similarly, both starting with the word “maybe”) and the use of essays, a very short sentence: “Maybe it could be me.” To be honest, I was really nervous. I hadn't had too much interaction with special needs students before, and wasn't sure how to about quotes in essays, handle myself around them. Long story short, I got hooked. The last key moment that gets the small-sentence treatment is the emotional crux of the essay. As we watch Bridget go from essays about nervously trying to help disabled students to falling in love with this specialty field, she undercuts the middle, potential sappiness of the moment by relying on essays about tobacco changed-up sentence length and slang: “Long story short, I got hooked.” The best essays convey emotions just as clearly as this image. What Could This Essay Do Even Better?
Bridget's essay is very strong, but there are still a few little things that could be improved. Explain the car connection better. The essay begins and ends with Bridget's enjoying a car ride, but this doesn't seem to be related either to the Fixer-Upper idea or to her passion for working with special-needs students. It would be great to either connect this into essay of food the essay more, or to take it out altogether and create more space for something else. Give more details about being a teacher in essays about the Applied Behavior Analysis summer program. It makes perfect sense that Bridget doesn't want to put her students on display. It would take the focus off of in essays, her and possibly read as offensive or condescending. But, rather than saying long story short, maybe she could elaborate on her own feelings here a bit more. What is it about this kind of tobacco, teaching that she loves?
What is essay of social she hoping to bring to the lives of about, her future clients? 3 Essential Tips for Writing Your Own Essay. How can you use this discussion to better your own college essay? Here are some suggestions for ways to use this resource effectively. #1: Take Apart the Other Essays in the Links. As you go through the essay and cons of social, essays we've compiled for you above, ask yourself the following questions: Can you explain to yourself (or someone else!) why the opening sentence works well? Look for the essay's detailed personal anecdote.
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Check out the essay's tone. If it's funny, can you find the places where the humor comes from? If it's sad and moving, can you find the imagery and secret ambitions description of feelings that make you moved? If it's serious, can you see how word choice adds to this tone? When you figure out how all the cogs fit together, you'll be able to essays about, build your own . Middle. um . whatever this is. All of essays about, these essays rely on about quotes in essays connecting with the reader through a heartfelt, highly descriptive scene from the author's life. It can either be very dramatic (did you survive a plane crash?) or it can be completely mundane (did you finally beat your dad at Scrabble?).
Either way, it should be personal and revealing about you, your personality, and the way you are now that you are entering the adult world. Let me level with you: the best writing isn't writing at all. About Tobacco. It's rewriting. And in order to have time to rewrite, you have to start way before the application deadline. My advice is to quotes, write your first draft at least two months before your applications are due. Let it sit for a few days untouched. Essays About. Then come back to it with fresh eyes and write middle school think critically about what you've written. What's extra?
What's missing? What is in the wrong place? What doesn't make sense? Don't be afraid to take it apart and essays tobacco rearrange sections. Do this several times over, and essay of social networking sites your essay will be much better for it! Want to improve your SAT score by about 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to a research paper, have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?
Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on essays about tobacco her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to of food, Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to tobacco, Get 36 on Each ACT Section:
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