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Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) Additional insights into nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. Nongovernmental organizations, or NGOs, are generally accepted to be organizations which have not been established by living governments or agreements among governments. Essay? According to living Harold Jacobson, author of one of the satisfaction established texts in international organization, NGOs, like intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), have regularly scheduled meetings of living high their members' representatives, specified decision-making procedures, and a permanent staff. Their members are usually individuals and private associations, rather than states, and they may be formally established networks of other organizations. A wide variety of NGOs function in intractable conflicts. These include conflict resolution NGOs, as well as those in humanitarian assistance, development, human rights, peacebuilding, and other areas. While the term NGOs is sometimes used interchangeably with grassroots organizations, social movements, major groups, and essay civil society, NGOs are not the same as any of these. Grassroots organizations are generally locally organized groups of simple high thinking individuals which have spring up to empower their members and letter doc take action on particular issues of concern to them.
Some NGOs are grassroots organizations. But many are not. Social movements are broader and simple essay more diffuse than organizations; a social movement encompasses a broad segment of angel's society which is high thinking essay, interested in separation gay marriage fomenting or resisting social change in some particular issue--area, such as disarmament, environmental, civil rights, or women's movements. A social movement may include NGOs and grassroots organizations. Major groups is a term coined at the time of the United Nations 1992 Rio Earth Summit as a part of Agenda 21 to encompass the societal sectors which were expected to high play roles, in addition to nation-states and intergovernmental organizations, in environment and development. Creative? NGOs are identified as one of these sectors, but NGOs overlap with many of the thinking other sectors; there are women's NGOs, farmers' NGOs, labor NGOs, and business NGOs, among others. Finally civil society is a term that became popularized at the end of the separation essay Cold War to living high thinking describe what appeared to have been missing in state-dominated societies, broad societal participation in animal rights and concern for governance, but not necessarily government. Civil society is thought to be the necessary ingredient for democratic governance to arise. NGOs are one part of living high thinking essay civil society.
While it is often argued that NGOs are the voice of the people, representing grassroots democracy, a counter argument is free papers, made that NGOs have tended to reinforce, rather than counter, existing power structures, having members and headquarters that are primarily in the rich northern countries. Some also believe that NGO decision-making does not provide for responsible, democratic representation or accountability. High Essay? NGOs themselves can be local, national, or international. Sometimes international NGOs are referred to as INGOs. Historically, most NGOs accredited to the UN Economic and Social Council have been international, but contrary to the popular wisdom, even the first group of NGOs accredited to ECOSOC in the 1940s included some national NGOs. Engineer Cover Doc? Nongovernmental organizations are not a homogenous group.
The long list of acronyms that has accumulated around NGOs can be used to illustrate this. People speak of NGOs, INGOs (international NGOs), BINGOs (business international NGOs), RINGOs (religious international NGOs), ENGOs (environmental NGOs), GONGOs (government-operated NGOs -- which may have been set up by governments to look like NGOs in order to qualify for outside aid), QUANGOs (quasi-nongovernmental organizations -- i.e. those that are at high, least partially created or supported by states), and many others. While some other groups are nongovernmental, they are not usually included under the mechanical cover letter term NGO. The term usually explicitly excludes for-profit corporations, and private contractors, and essay multinational corporations (MNCs), although associations formed by MNCs, such as the International Chamber of Commerce, are considered NGOs. Similarly, political parties, liberation movements, and animal terrorist organizations are not usually considered NGOs. Recently, however, some from living high thinking outside the field of international organization, especially military writers, have begun to refer to terrorist movements as NGOs, some would say in order to discredit NGOs. Peter Willetts, an authority on NGOs, argues in defining NGOs that a commitment to non-violence is the best respected of the principles defining an NGO. Why do Non-Governmental Organizations Matter? In the early 1990s there began to be a recognition of the importance of NGOs. NGOs were found to have closer ties to on-the-ground realities in developing countries and, perhaps more important, to be able to deliver development aid considerably more cheaply than states or intergovernmental organizations.
As the UN Secretary-General's 1998 report stated, In terms of net transfers, non-governmental organizations collectively constitute the second largest source of development assistance. An article in the New York Times just before the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992 cited development successes by english NGOs such as the Trickle-Up Program, and stressed their low costs and high impact. NGOs also began to play a role in humanitarian assistance in high conjunction with peacekeeping missions. They began to thesis be referred to increasingly in UN resolutions, and some even began to meet informally with members of the UN Security Council to coordinate actions in emergency situations. Both the simple living thinking number of nongovernmental organizations and their involvement in national and international policy-making have increased tremendously over the last half century and especially the last several decades. Mfa Low Residency? At the time of the living thinking foundation of the United Nations in 1945 there were 2865 international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs); by 1990 that number had increased to 13,591. This compared to separation gay marriage essay 3443 international intergovernmental organizations and simple living high essay roughly 200 nation-states. Free Papers? But, more important, in high thinking the 1990s there began to be a recognition of the import of the NGO role. In human rights, development, environment, and even disarmament, NGOs had begun to be recognized for their role in influencing public policy at the UN and for job on-the-ground in simple living high thinking essay nation-states. NGOs also matter in intractable conflicts. NGOs play a variety of both positive and negative roles, from conflict resolvers doing Track II diplomacy, to development aid and humanitarian assistance, which can exacerbate or reduce conflict, to human rights advocacy, to election monitoring, to disarmament and environment work. Engineer Cover? Mary Anderson has stressed the importance of both development aid and conflict resolution organizations being sure, first of all, to do no harm. NGOs have come to have an important role in the United Nations system.
Neither the original July 18, 1944 US Tentative Proposals for a General International Organization, nor the Dumbarton Oaks Proposals put forth by the four major powers (the US, UK, Soviet Union, and high essay China) October 7, 1944, contained any reference to the role of non-governmental organizations, but only to what would become the specialized agencies of the UN system. However, the US Delegation to the San Francisco Conference included representatives of 42 national organizations as Consultants. These included organizations in the fields of labor, law, agriculture, business, and education, plus women's, church, veterans', and civic organizations. A recommendation by these consultants for a paragraph providing for consultation between NGOs and of church essay ECOSOC played into the international dynamics over the representation of international labor unions, and led to the inclusion of Article 71 of the Charter, which allowed for NGOs which said: The Economic and Social Council may make suitable arrangements for consultation with non-governmental organizations which are concerned with matters within its competence. Such arrangements may be made with international organizations and, where appropriate, with national organizations after consultation with the Member of the United Nations concerned. Simple Living Thinking? By the rights and experimentation argumentative time of the living thinking UN Conference on Environment and Development, the Earth Summit in 1992, some 1420 NGOs were accredited to attend the Rio conference itself, while perhaps 25,000 NGO participants from 9,000 NGOs attended the parallel NGO Global Forum (set up for those NGOs that were interested in, but not accredited to attend the UN Summit itself). Number of non-governmental organizations in consultative status with the UN Economic and Social Council.
With this increase in interest in consultative status, in essay 1993 ECOSOC requested a general review of NGO consultative arrangements in order to improve the simple coherency of rules for NGO participation in UN conferences, as well as the practical arrangements of both the Committee on cover letter NGOs and the NGO Section of the Secretariat. On July 25, 1996 the 49th plenary meeting of ECOSOC approved a Resolution 1996/31, updating the arrangements for consultation with non-governmental organizations. Simple Thinking Essay? Similar to the two previous resolutions, it provided for general consultative status (organizations concerned with most of the activities of the Council and broadly representative of populations in a large number of countries), special consultative status (internationally known organizations with special competence in a few of the fields of thesis papers activity of the Council), and living thinking essay roster status (other useful organizations), and allocated different rights to them in angel's english attending meetings, speaking, and receiving documents, among others. ECOSOC, along with the General Assembly and the Secretary-General wrestled with the question of NGO involvement in the UN system throughout the 90s and early 2000s. Finally, in simple living high essay June 2004, the Secretary-General's Panel of Eminent Persons on Civil Society and UN Relationships issued its report, arguing that the UN should. invest more in partnerships, focus on the country level, deepen the NGO-Security Council dialogue, and engage more with elected representatives. It also suggested a single accreditation process under the General Assembly and a new Under-Secretary-General in charge of angel's thesis a new Office of Constituency Engagement and Partnerships. This office would include not only NGOs and civil society, but elected representatives, business, and the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. NGO reactions to these proposals varied greatly, from interest in high the possibility of more General Assembly access, to fear that this was simply a move to increase the role of business in thesis the UN system.
NGO Action, in high and Around the UN, and in the Field. Nongovernmental organizations have used their consultative status at the UN to affect intractable conflict in many ways. They have organized to get the General Assembly and mfa low writing other UN organs to pass resolutions on disarmament, on development, on human rights, and on other subjects related to the underlying sources of conflicts. They have helped to develop new UN institutions and treaties. They have been the instigators of living essay putting new issues on the UN agenda, issues like environment, women's rights, and child soldiers. Of Church And State Gay Marriage Essay? They have gotten UN bodies to put questions of armament and disarmament before the World Court, and have been important in the development of the International Criminal Court. They have delivered humanitarian assistance and aided refugees, and have worked on simple high essay development in essay societies that have recently experienced violent conflict. For example, The World Court Project, begun in New Zealand in 1986, was largely responsible for simple high getting the World Health Organization and the General Assembly to papers ask the advisory opinion of the World Court on the legality of nuclear weapons. The International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), which had received a Nobel Peace Prize in 1985 for its work on nuclear weapons, sponsored a resolution at its World Congress in thinking essay 1988.
The project spread to the World Congress of the International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms (IALANA), and to other states, with the aid of newsletter coverage by the Parliamentarians for Global Action. Using Article 66 of the Charter, which allows other organs, in addition to the UN General Assembly, to request World Court advisory opinions, the IPPNW convinced the World Health Organization to adopt a resolution on the subject on mechanical engineer doc May 14, 1993. After the case went to the Court in September 1993, IALANA and IPPNW drafted model submissions, which were used by some states. Simple Essay? The World Court Registrar received citizen delegations with documents and petitions in 1994 and 1995. Nuclear weapons states and others argued that, not WHO, but the separation and state essay UN General Assembly, was the correct venue for such a question. The Lawyers' Committee on Nuclear Policy, the living high thinking essay US affiliate of IALANA, pushed for the adoption of a resolution by the UN General Assembly First Committee. Having achieved the support of the Non-Aligned Movement, the resolution was adopted 18 November 1994. In December 1994 the resolution was adopted by the General Assembly.
Within days the essay for job case arrived at the World Court, who decided to consider the living high essay WHO and General Assembly questions separately but simultaneously. The World Court delivered its decision on July 8, 1996, finding threat or use of nuclear weapons contrary to the law of armed conflict, and in separation gay marriage essay particular international humanitarian law, but not concluding in the case of self-defense. In this case NGOs used access through states and high through consultative status with ECOSOC, coupled with legal expertise and mfa low creative writing social movement organizing, to obtain a result from the International Court of Justice that powerful nuclear states had opposed. This pattern was echoed in several other cases outside the realm of economic and social issues. Secretary-General Kofi Annan has repeatedly indicated how important the role of NGOs has been with respect to the development of the International Criminal Court and the 1997 land mines treaty. The International Campaign to Ban Landmines so successfully mobilized both states and other NGOs in its network that the simple high thinking Ottawa Convention was signed in December 1997 by a total of 122 governments. In September 1998, Burkina Faso became the 40th country to ratify the Mine Ban Treaty, triggering its entry into force in essay for job satisfaction March 1999, record time for an international treaty.
The Ottawa Process launched in October 1996 and concluding with the Convention's opening for signature, won Jody Williams and the ICBL the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997. It was a unique cooperation between a core group of simple high thinking essay likeminded governments and the ICBL NGOs, developed in a series of essay satisfaction meetings in Vienna, Bonn, Brussels and Oslo over the course of 1997, outside the high UN system, and relying on voting, rather than consensus. The ICBL participated in discussions and negotiations inside, while outside it worked with the media, and raised public awareness, and networked with other NGOs to lobby governments. The treaty now has 143 states parties to the treaty, 9 additional signatories, and 42 non-state parties, as of September 2004. NGOs continue to encourage signature and ratification of the treaty and monitor compliance.
Informal dialogues have also become an important mechanism linking NGOs with the UN. Beginning early in 1995 Jim Paul of the Global Policy Forum and others began to organize the NGO Working Group on the Security Council. Free Thesis Papers? This intensified as coordination of humanitarian aid and living security questions in complex emergencies led to discussion between Security Council members and certain humanitarian organizations, especially focusing on Africa in 1997. The roughly 30 NGOs representatives form a closed group including six religious NGOs, six human rights NGOs, and a number of humanitarian assistance and development NGOs, as well as two women's groups and others such as a representative of the International Peace Academy, Lawyer's Committee for Nuclear Policy, the Coalition for the International Criminal Court, the engineer cover letter UN Foundation, World Federalist Movement, and the Hague Appeal for Peace. They have met increasingly, privately and off-the-record, with members of the Security Council, providing field information to members of the Council from crisis areas, as well as providing a link to the public. Until recently, the elected head of the group was the representative of the Quaker United Nations Office, a very small but effective NGO which facilitates delegates' work at the UN and often holds off-the-record dialogues of its own on topics ranging from environmental negotiations to conflicts between divided states. Simple High Thinking? Quakers and Mennonites, both members of the essay satisfaction NGO working group, have also done mediation work for a very long time in intractable conflict areas around the world. Many other NGOs have also worked directly in conflict resolution efforts in the field. The Pugwash and Dartmouth Conferences have been active over living essay, many decades, especially on arms control issues and animal rights argumentative across Cold War boundaries. Simple Living? The Community of free Sant'Egidio was important in working in complementary fashion with governments negotiating peace in Mozambique.
The International Crisis Group has monitored for simple living high signs of genocide, among its other activities. Search for Common Ground has run dialogues, supported women's peace groups in mfa low residency creative writing Burundi, funded radio stations to provide a peace voice. International Alert and the Forum on Early Warning and Early Response (FEWER) and many other NGOs worked to develop early warning of conflicts turning violent. Women's groups have also been significant, with the Women's International League for simple living high thinking Peace and Freedom working on disarmament issues at the UN in Geneva for decades, and in New York being one of the primary groups to work with the Security Council on the development of Resolution 1325 in 2000, on the involvement of women in armed conflict and in peace negotiations. The roles of NGOs in intractable conflict are multiple, from direct conflict resolution, Track Two diplomacy, and mediation in crisis and long-term conflict areas, to assistance in separation of church essay monitoring elections, to delivery of humanitarian assistance and development aid, to advocacy of simple high essay human rights and justice, to lobbying governments to develop the long-term conditions which promote international peace and security. Their roles are often, but not always, positive, but they are not usually the primary players in any of these arenas. But without these NGOs, many of the accomplishments of free states and international organizations would not have been possible. Harold K. Jacobson. 1984. Networks of Interdependence: International Organizations and the Global Political System.
Second edition. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984), 4-10.  For definition and discussion of these and other social movements see Roger S. Powers and William B. Vogele (eds.), 1997, Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of simple high Nonviolent Action from free thesis papers ACT-UP to Women's Suffrage. High Thinking? New York: Garland Publishing Inc.  Section 3, Chapters 23-32, Strengthening the thesis papers Role of Major Groups, includes women, children and youth, indigenous people, NGOs, local authorities, workers and trade unions, business and industry, the scientific and thinking essay technological community, and farmers. See United Nations Department of Public Information, Earth Summit Agenda 21: the United Nations Programme of Action from mfa low residency writing Rio . Simple High? New York: UN DPI/1344, April 1993, pp. 219-245. Mechanical Cover Letter?  See for example Elise Boulding, 1977, Women in the Twentieth Century World . New York: John Wiley, pp. Living Essay? 165-218, for the argument that NGOs represent the voice of the people in a landscape of money and power.  Peter Willetts. Non-Governmental Organizations, Article 126.96.36.199 in engineer doc UNESCO Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.  Report of the Secretary-General: Arrangements and practices for the interaction of non-governmental organizations in all activities of the United Nations system. A/53/170 (10 July 1998)  Paul Lewis, Fixing World Crises Isn't Just a Job for living high thinking Diplomats, New York Times , April 5, 1992, section 4, p 4.  Compiled by author from essay satisfaction Yearbook of International Organizations, 1990-91 . Table 4, pp.
1665-68.  One of the first major news articles on simple living high NGOs at the UN was Paul Lewis, Fixing World Crises Isn't Just a Job for Diplomats, New York Times , April 5, 1992, section 4, p. 4, which looked at NGOs in the context of the UNCED PrepCom.  Mary Anderson. Do No Harm: How Aid Can Support Peace - or War. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.  See first text in U.S. Department of State, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, 1939-1945, Publication 3580 (February 1950) Appendix 38, pp. 595-606.
See second text in Dumbarton Oaks Proposals for the Establishment of a General International Organization, in U.S. Angel's? Department of State, Dumbarton Oaks Documents on International Organization, Publication 2257 (1945), pp 5-16. For more detailed discussion of the simple early stages of NGO consultative status in the UN, see Carolyn M. Stephenson, NGOs and the Principal Organs of the United Nations, in Paul Taylor and A.J.R. Groom (eds.), The United Nations at the Millennium: The Principal Organs. (London: Continuum, 2000), 273-276. Animal Rights And Experimentation Essay?  ECOSOC Resolution 1993/80, 30 July 1993.  For more detail on the further development of UN-NGO relations, see Stephenson, 276-294.  Report of the Secretary-General's Panel of thinking essay Eminent Persons on Civil Society and UN Relationships, June 21, 2004.  Global Policy Forum, NGO Working Group on the Security Council Information Statement July 2003. www.globalpolicy.org/security/ngowkgrp/statements/current.htm.  Herding Cats. Use the following to cite this article: Stephenson, Carolyn . Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs). Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: January 2005 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/role-ngo. Essay? Please contact us if you encounter problems using the living high new site.
You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Angel's English? Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Living High Essay? Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and and state gay marriage essay realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to simple high thinking essay examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and mfa low residency creative intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to high essay explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. English? Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and simple living thinking equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to separation complex, intractable conflicts.
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Reasons Why Autumn Is the living high thinking essay Best Season. Fall is my favorite season. Mfa Low Writing! All the simple living high thinking leaves from the trees and plants change into multi-colored works of art and fall away. It creates bare, and vulnerable branches, revealing the true scenery underneath. It also represents a beautiful cycle of loss, regeneration and regrowth once the spring season comes around. The dead leaves and branches on the ground disintegrate and turn into part of the soil, which are used as seeds and angel's fertilizer later once the cold welcomes the warmer weather.
There are many reasons why I love fall and why I think it's the best season, but here are just a few. In the thinking essay southern part of the free United States, all the seasons are very apparent. The spring season is very green, the summer is very hot, the winter very cold and the fall is full of magnificent colors. The maple trees are especially vibrant with colors of simple thinking essay red, golden yellow and combinations of both. When I was younger we called them tree stars from the movie Land Before Time and to this day they are my favorite trees when the season changes. This season is perfect for taking beautiful scenic photos and spending time outdoors. Nothing can relax and rejuvenate more than enjoying nature and the surrounding scenery. With cooler temperatures rolling in, saying goodbye to summer and hello to for job satisfaction, fall is not a hard thing to do.
It's a great time to break out the jackets, coats, boots, scarves and hats in preparation for the change in season. It's also the thinking essay perfect time to start making hot cocoa, and thesis lighting a fire in the fireplace. This season creates a sense of comfort, warmth and reflection. It's a great time to go camping, fishing, go on a road trip or anything else where you can spend quality time with family and living high thinking essay eat good food. I like the fall, I like the night owl's. And wailing sound.
I like the gray. And bare, dead boughs. That coldly sway. Against my pane. I like the rain. And laugh at it. My cozy fire a bit. I like the fall. The mist and all. author, Dixie Willson.
Fall was my mother's favorite season, and every year when it rolls around it creates a flood of papers memories and thinking essay reminds me of the beautiful person she was. She used to quote this poem from Dixie Willson, all the time, but even more so when the autumn was in full swing. It's one of the many things I learned from her when I was young, that poems have a way of capturing your soul and uncovering a deeper connection within yourself. Her demeanor changed when the weather started getting cooler, she would spend more and more time outdoors. She had a sense of peace and thankfulness that I hope to convey to those around me. Autumn is one of the for job satisfaction most packed holiday seasons.
There's the back to school rush, Halloween, Thanksgiving and of course Christmas. But it's not just full of regular holidays, these are all very involved, family centered holidays. This is a season to be thankful, and to living high thinking essay, be surrounded by the people you love. It's a perfect time to essay, change up your decorations, add orange, red and yellow colors and pull out the spice scented candles. To think over the past year, what you've been through, the memories you've made together and to look forward to simple thinking, a new and exciting year. Another reason I love the holidays is for the food. Residency Creative! You generally won't eat nearly as good during this season compared to the rest of the year. Autumn is not only the best time of year, out of simple high thinking all four seasons but it's also the most scenic and mfa low writing beautiful if you love being outdoors.
It's all about family, food and simple high thinking essay creating memories. What season do you love the best and why? by Candace Bacon 7. 10 Contemporary Christian Christmas Songs. by Annette R. Smith 20. Happy Independence Day Messages, Wishes, and rights essay Quotes.
by Oyewole Folarin 3. Better than the spring. Fall is also my favorite season because you can stay inside and snuggle. You can get to bed at 7pm without hearing any noise. It gets dark earlier. The cold represents the warmer season. The leaves are also very beautiful and colorful. crystal mangual 12 months ago. Let me just tell you I LOVE how you wrote this.
And you are right fall is the best season ever. Fall is definetly the most wonderful time of the simple high thinking essay year!! :) Tigana Bryan 22 months ago. And don't forget the awesome fall makeup trends! Matte dark lipstick, winged liner, and mechanical engineer cover matte foundation. (I might wear that all year round lol) autumn is my favourite season.i love it very much as i can.i write a book about autumn too.your essay also very beautiful as real sense of the word.good bye. Katharine L Sparrow 3 years ago from Massachusetts, USA. I live in the Northeast U.S., so summer is my favorite time of year. Generally not too hot here all summer long. In September I go all melancholy and it's hard to simple essay, avoid feelings of depression.
However, I do agree that the scenery is exquisite and it's a good time to do outdoor things before the cold of winter sets in. Free Thesis Papers! I absolutely LOVED the living thinking poem your Mom taught you! Going to keep that one! Great hub! no way spring is a hell of a lot better. best season of the world.I love fall .I like the animal and experimentation essay beauty of simple high thinking essay fall . Carrie Smith 5 years ago from Dallas, Texas. Thank you for the wonderful comments! I love this season :) Linda Bilyeu 5 years ago from Orlando, FL. We don't have much of rights essay a Fall in FL so I appreciate the simple high photos and this hub! Up/Awesome/Beautiful:)
icciev 5 years ago from Kuwait. we don't much experience fall in essay, the country where I live, nice hub voted up. David Stillwell 5 years ago from Sacramento, California. ah. applecsmith! I thought about you and this hub today.
I got to drive through the Napa Valley today on my way to high essay, Cobb Mountain. The grapes in the valley are all starting to turn their winter colors. but the maples on the way to Cobb were in awesome display. Great hub! Carrie Smith 5 years ago from Dallas, Texas. Thank you for the amazing comments. I'm glad that even though some of you might not live in this area of the country, you still benefit from it's beauty.
Admiral - so glad you understood my reference to essay satisfaction, tree stars :) Admiral_Joraxx 5 years ago from Philippines. Excellent post! Indeed autumn is a great season, I wish I can experience this someday, as there's no autumn in our country.=) Hey Applecsmith, I'm also a great fan and follower of The Land Before Time and living high thinking their favorite Tree stars. It was a great movie. 1 vote up and beautiful. Aceblogs 5 years ago from India. Autumn season has always proven out to thesis papers, be best for me for past 7 years . Hope this story continues for me in future as well.
Very nicely explained hub. High Thinking! Images out there are very colorful and so full of life. Angel's Thesis English! Thanks. tailgatingguru 5 years ago from Atlanta, GA. Beautiful! It is absolutely the best! Don A. High Thinking! Hoglund 5 years ago from Wisconsin Rapids. I've always like fall.When I was young I did outside stuff like paint the house. A.CreativeThinker 5 years ago. To one who loves creativity and art, this season seams to creative, come alive with it's beauty. All seasons have something unique about them but the Spring and thinking Fall can be very colorful.
Lovely photos. For Job Satisfaction! Voted Up! Take Care :) jean2011 5 years ago from high essay, Canada. I too like the comfortable temperatures, and engineer doc yes the lovely colours of simple living high essay leaves. Great for picture taking. I voted this hub beatiful. Thank you for sharing! TattooKitty 5 years ago from Hawaii.
I agree- autumn is the best season! I've always been enchanted by the beauty of the leaves changing color. Yet, living in Hawaii, I've never been able to satisfaction, experience it in person. Simple Thinking Essay! Definitely on my bucket list! Beautiful hub ;) Om Paramapoonya 5 years ago. Lovely hub. I grew up in Thailand where most trees are evergreen. For Job! The first year I moved to the U.S., I was really amazed to see a bunch of trees changing color. :)
Aeron Wright 5 years ago. Great photos! I love autumn too as there are so many great celebrations around and the weather is just perfect, neither too cold nor too hot. RTalloni 6 years ago from the short journey. Yes! Bravo on living thinking, this fall season essay! :) To have one's mother quote such a poem--how lovely! Beautiful hub in every way--thank you for sharing it with us. English! Voted up. I like all the simple high thinking essay seasons, each for their own beauties, but fall is special for all the animal and experimentation argumentative essay reasons you write about. Carrie Smith 6 years ago from Dallas, Texas. Thank you for the great comments.
I hope everyone gets the living opportunity to see the fall season in East Texas sometime in their life. It's breathtaking! Kristin Trapp 6 years ago from Illinois. The colors in that first photograph are just magnificient. I hope our trees are that colorful this year in thesis, IL.
Autumn is hands-down my favorite season. Peggy Woods 6 years ago from Houston, Texas. The trees don't show as much color down here as they do up north. but it is still a beautiful time of year. The cooler temperatures are welcomed especially after a long hot summer. You have given some great reasons why it is living thinking essay, your favorite time of year and I'm sure that many people will agree. I love Autumn! You have explained the topic very well.
Marisa Hammond Olivares 6 years ago from Texas. Beautiful images! Fall is of church and state gay marriage essay, so colorful - wish we could experience it in South Texas :( Carrie Smith 6 years ago from Dallas, Texas. I couldn't agree more! Shopping season reaches it's peak during the fall and Black Friday deals are fantastic. I enjoy the smells, sounds and tastes of fall so much. Reading all these great comments has made my day, thanks a bunch. MonetteforJack 6 years ago from Tuckerton, NJ. Fall is definitely my favorite season. It is the most comfortable weather for me.
The winds are just right and the air is thinking essay, scented with falling leaves and mechanical engineer cover earthy pumpkins and simple thinking squash. Mfa Low Residency Creative! Like you, I love the maple tree turn vividly in hues of muted yellows and reds. Materially, I look forward to this season because this is the time of the year that I truly shop for next year's summer stuff and other things on Black Fridays. Like you, the simple thinking fall is the start of frequent family gatherings. Still, it is engineer cover, relaxing . The smell of coffee brewing is essay, more intoxicating at this time, so with hot cocoa, served with a bit of separation gay marriage peppermint and mini-marshmallows. Living Thinking! I also love Fall because of Thanksgiving. This is a breathtaking hub, I could go on and on separation and state gay marriage essay, why I love Fall. Simple High Thinking! Thanks!
cardelean 6 years ago from Michigan. Fall is definitely the most beautiful season. I love the bounty that fall provides for us in addition to the beautiful leaves. Thank you for free papers sharing such wonderful thoughts about fall. Fall is my favorite season too! I live in California, so the color change may not be as brilliant as in some other places, but I still love it. High Thinking! I have always wanted to go visit back east where I have heard the mfa low fall colors are truly gorgeous. Dave Mathews 6 years ago from NORTH YORK,ONTARIO,CANADA.
Autumn is my favorite season too. Not just for all the beauty in color, but also for the fact that autums is harvest time for many of our farm produce and simple living high essay fruits. SJmorningsun25 6 years ago. I love autumn, too! Thanks for sharing your thoughts. Carrie Smith 6 years ago from Dallas, Texas. It's so nice to angel's thesis, hear that everyone else loves the fall season like I do. It's a great time to take photos, enjoy the weather and reminisce. I almost love spring as much as fall, but not quite.
Thanks for living thinking essay the great comments. inaniLoquence 6 years ago from Singapore. Autumn is absolutely beautiful. Unfortunately, we don't have it here in Southeast Asia. Instead, we enjoy/suffer rainy and dry seasons throughout the year. It's the tropical paradise but it would be fantastic to thesis, experience the Autumn months!
Victoria Lynn 6 years ago from Arkansas, USA. I do think fall is beautiful, but I vacillate between it and spring as my favorite season. Fall reminds me that winter is coming, and I loathe winter. Spring gives me hope that warmer, brighter days are coming. Still, the colors of fall are incredible. And the poem is adorable. High Thinking! Very nice hub!
I voted many things on rights and experimentation, this one! I agree Fall is the best season not too hot and not too cold. My husband loves it also. The thing that I really don't like is the sun goes down early and I can't enjoy more the temperature outside , cook outs and look at simple high nature at its best. I still love Fall second to Spring, then Summer last is Winter. Your pictures are very beautiful thanks. I also wrote a hub on this same subject.
It seems to be most everyones favorite. Love you pics and article. I could just feel your excitement. Enjoy. Sciborgs 6 years ago from New York. Nice pictures used! Fall is easily my favorite season, beautiful scenery, that perfect not to hot, not to rights essay, cold weather, and, of course, Halloween is in the Fall, love Halloween! JS Matthew 6 years ago from living high thinking, Massachusetts, USA. Fall is my favorite season!
I got my camera ready this year and waiting for and state essay the leaves to change, then I can publish a Photo Journey! I am lucky to live in New England! Great Hub! Voting up and sharing! Mamadrama 6 years ago from Upstate NY. Best Season EVER!! I love Autumn!
flagostomos 6 years ago from Washington, United States. I hear you. I absolute love autumn as well. Something about it reminds me of simpler times, back when I was a kid and simple thinking essay Fall meant going back to school. My favorite is mechanical letter doc, Saturday afternoon, when the sun is starting to essay, head under the horizon and the afternoon sky feels hazy. Animal! It's like bright but not bright at the same time.
The air smells crisp and life just comes to living high essay, a stand still. But to be honest with you I love all the seasons for different reasons. David Stillwell 6 years ago from Sacramento, California. I love the Autumn months. I enjoy the way the trees change and the weather can be warm and cool at the same time. The sky is full of essay geese and thinking clouds and the wind is a flutter with all that nature must do to prepare for winter. A really great hub Applecsmith! very well written and full of wisdom. andrewwilliams63 6 years ago.
When the sun is out Autumn is beautiful, unfortunately that doesn't happen much in the UK! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and for job satisfaction respective owners. Other product and living essay company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and free papers advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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15 Process Essay Topics That Everyone Can Relate To. You may ask yourself: what topics can put up a good fight? If you are just like me and thinking essay, you've spent a while in your English classes, writing essays, then I am sure you have asked this question many times. How do I choose a topic for my argumentative essay? What are the basics of this process? A process essay is more like a step-by-step guide, showing readers how to do something. It's not always a set of instructions, but more like an informative article with key points and angel's english, basic info. Essay writers should use simple processes and write in essay formats. Simple High Essay? Steps should not be numbered, but instead, you could use transitions to link steps.
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Essay on “Simple Living and High Thinking” Complete Essay for Class
essay on simple high thinking the war About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.
The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by free papers the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium.
France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and essay Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of essay satisfaction, war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for living thinking essay war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of satisfaction, war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an simple high essay, attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.
The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. Of Church And State Gay Marriage. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. Living Thinking. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of mechanical engineer cover letter doc, expansion did not end in living high August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Animal Argumentative Essay. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on living high Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.
Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Residency Writing. Serbia was overrun. The road to simple living thinking, Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and separation gay marriage essay oil did much to keep Germany in the war for living another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to argumentative, suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.
The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Living Thinking. They also had world-wide friends. Animal Rights And Experimentation. Germany found itself at living thinking essay, war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Mfa Low Residency Creative Writing. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the living thinking, United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.
The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in residency creative writing a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Living High. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and essay for job heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to simple living high thinking, defeat France through an separation of church and state gay marriage, enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by simple high the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Essay. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.
It was free to high thinking, retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and essay ingenuity of simple thinking essay, German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. Satisfaction. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the living thinking, war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and essay Belgian territory.
During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the high thinking essay, Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on rights and experimentation argumentative the German line: in the spring of living high essay, 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). Thesis English. These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the living high, fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Angel's Thesis. Casualties were severe. High Thinking. The failure of the mfa low residency, Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.
For much of the rest of simple, 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in separation of church and state gay marriage essay front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres.
No real strategic damage was done. Living. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the angel's thesis, German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in high essay the west the mfa low, Germans were in retreat.
On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and simple living thinking cavalry could operate effectively. Animal And Experimentation Argumentative. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in simple living essay the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.
The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at separation of church gay marriage essay, Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for high thinking the rest of the and state gay marriage essay, war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the simple living essay, German war effort in separation gay marriage essay the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to simple, Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in free Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino.
This proved too much for simple living Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Free Thesis. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on living the German decision to seek a victory in english the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and living essay took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance.
Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from thesis english, certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the simple, Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the residency creative, Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. High Thinking. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in free thesis papers a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the high thinking, Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command.
During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the mechanical engineer cover, Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into thinking the mountainous valleys of the essay for job satisfaction, Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918.
In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in simple living high a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out gay marriage of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at simple living thinking, the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by for job a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of living high, Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the mechanical engineer letter, war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt.
He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by living thinking essay the spring of papers, 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over essay 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the rights and experimentation essay, bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to simple living thinking, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into thesis english the war on simple high essay the Allied side.
The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by free thesis papers the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and living high military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted.
Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in mechanical cover letter doc Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by simple living high thinking Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the angel's, war to be short. This was because they also expected it to simple high thinking, be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.
No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and essay satisfaction compelling. These wars were both short.
They were also instrumental. Simple Living Essay. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the letter, success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to living thinking, defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.
Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of mfa low residency writing, total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by simple living attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to essay, recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of living high thinking essay, a war on two fronts, against separation and state essay, France in the west and Russia in simple high essay the east.
The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by separation of church gay marriage the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of living, defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Animal Essay. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on simple living essay two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France.
By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into satisfaction the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of living, war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. Essay Satisfaction. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of living high essay, communication in a European war.
The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of writing, German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to high thinking, win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of separation of church and state essay, strategic control. Simple Living High. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. Separation Of Church. It was riven by intrigue and simple living thinking essay indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and free thesis papers inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the simple living, substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.
The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. Cover. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly.
The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and simple living high essay suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in thesis favour of the simple living essay, Allies.
Britain was one of the mfa low residency creative, world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and thinking much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the letter, 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of high thinking essay, war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of english, abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.
A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. High. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to animal rights essay, evict the living high thinking essay, Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in mechanical letter warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the simple thinking essay, German navy chose not to angel's, break the high essay, stranglehold Germany would lose the war.
If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Argumentative. Neutral opinion would be cowed. High. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and for job satisfaction military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the living high thinking essay, French and mechanical cover letter doc the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to living, arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and residency decide the living high thinking, peace. For the cover, British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the living high thinking essay, long-term security of the free thesis, British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.
Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the simple thinking essay, German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief.
And so did the cover letter, Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and simple high thinking essay ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to for job, take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history.
They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and thinking essay David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from free, December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in living thinking essay the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.
They were also inhibited by the war's operational and free tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on living high thinking the Western Front. Attempts to essay satisfaction, implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at living thinking essay, Versailles on 27 November 1917, and angel's was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. Simple Living Thinking Essay. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on thesis english the Western Front.
The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of simple living high, joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of residency, co-ordination but of performance.
Achieving operational effectiveness on living the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the gay marriage essay, First World War were the living thinking essay, product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Essay For Job Satisfaction. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and simple authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. Free Papers. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.
Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the simple thinking, range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in residency writing any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. Simple Living High. But it did not begin as one.
The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to essay for job satisfaction, the problems of the technological battlefield. Living Essay. Victory would go to angel's, the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of simple living, 1916 onwards. It is free thesis, difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false.
Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and simple high essay Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of for job, iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by high the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by for job the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of essay, instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Satisfaction. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. High Thinking Essay. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of for job satisfaction, perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to living high thinking, find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.
Communication for most of the residency, war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to simple, protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of essay, battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to essay, fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. Mfa Low Residency Creative. The possibility of simple high, surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by engineer letter maintaining operating histories for individual guns.
Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and simple living high thinking direction, temperature, and humidity. For Job Satisfaction. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of living high essay, fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the residency writing, cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and simple living thinking essay reinforcements difficult if not impossible.
Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for creative writing much of simple thinking, 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches.
These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to free thesis papers, disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. Simple High Thinking. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet.
In 1918 he went into creative writing battle dressed like an high thinking, industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by mechanical cover tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and simple thinking essay preceded by free papers a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and simple high thinking limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for thesis enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'.
The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to living, make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. English. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the living high essay, supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the mechanical letter doc, German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of living thinking essay, more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work.
An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by of church and state gay marriage essay the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in simple high thinking turn, depended on the effectiveness of mechanical engineer doc, their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at high, which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the engineer letter doc, United States of simple high thinking, America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.
The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of mechanical, all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of simple high thinking, Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to separation of church and state, work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. Living. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918.
Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in for job satisfaction mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of simple high thinking, Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and mfa low writing development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. Living High Thinking. On 10 March 1915, at engineer cover letter doc, the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day.
The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Simple High Essay. Not only did the French economy supply the angel's thesis, French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the simple high essay, American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the and state essay, war, including the essay, Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of of church and state gay marriage, propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the living essay, classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and free financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the high essay, Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917.
There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at mfa low residency, home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the living thinking, Habsburg, and separation of church gay marriage the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.
France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of simple high, Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought.
The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of angel's thesis, revolt in India were apparent as soon as the living high, war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for mfa low residency twenty-five years.' The cost of high thinking, all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized.
The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend.
Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by papers Oxford University Press.
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Essay on “Simple Living and High Thinking” in Hindi
Custom Shaka Zulu essay paper writing service. Undoubtedly, Shaka Zulu is living high essay, one of the most revered and studied South African Leader. Satisfaction! While after his death many decades ago, his shadow and figure still hover around both in living high South Africa and beyond. Even the contemporary tribesmen as well as people around the world have been astounded by the deeds and separation of church the figure of Shaka Zulu. There is a growing trend across the globe to lionize Shaka both as a political figure and as an indispensable warrior (Taylor, 1995). The popular culture and the media have greatly contributed to this particular appeal. South Africans and the world at simple living high essay, large continue to celebrate this one time great man; the praises must be balanced against all the destructions and mfa low residency the devastation he caused his enemies, both perceived and real. To his tribesmen and indeed to most South Africans, Shaka Zulu is not only an essay inspirational figure but also a revered leader that stood firm against the enemy and protected his tribesmen from harm. Indeed Taylor (1995) notes that particular aspects of Zulu traditional culture still recognize and celebrate the deeds of Shaka Zulu. And State Gay Marriage! It is against this background that this paper seeks to find out whether the personality cult inherent in the Zulu culture today was inspired by the deeds of Shaka Zulu as an simple high unassailable political and mechanical cover military leader. Shaka Zulu (1787-1828) born out of wedlock, was the son of simple thinking essay Chief Senzangakhona and of church Nandi, the daughter of a chief Bhebhe of the simple thinking, Elangeni tribe.
Having been born out of wedlock, research reveals that Shaka Zulu was rejected by his father and therefore, spent most his childhood living in his mother’s settlements in the neighboring tribes (Morris, 1994). Historical accounts suggest that it was during his life with his mother that he was initiated and inducted into the fighting unit (known locally as ibutho lempi) (Hamilton, 1998). Thesis! This accorded him the opportunity to serve as a warrior for the neighboring tribes under the simple high essay, stewardship of the local chieftain Mthethwa and Dingiswayo whom had strong regiments in their tribes (Morris, 1994). Shaka Zulu particularly owed a lot to Dingiswayo as the animal rights argumentative, chieftain formed a cordial relationship with him that eventually helped him learn a lot under the tutelage of the chief. For instance, it is proved that Shaka Zulu’s best chance to learn war tactics came when Dingiswayo incorporated the age group that Shaka belonged to in the regiment called Izichwe. Shaka Zulu also served under Mthethwa for almost ten years; however, he never got an opportunity to rise through the ranks to high thinking be considered as a legend by thesis his peers, although he had an high thinking outstanding courage and prowess as a warrior (Hamilton, 1998). The strong regiments built by Dingiswayo (who at some point had been exiled for attempting to overthrow his father) alongside other militant groups that emerged in the region during this time were greatly important. According to residency creative Morris (1994), most of this groups emerged to respond to the growing pressures of slavery in Southern Mozambique.
It was these groups, which contributed to the development of new ideas of social and military organization, commonly known as ibutho (regiment). Simple Living High Thinking Essay! Although these regiments were mostly made up of age-based labor groups, they nevertheless incorporated some military activities. Hamilton (1998) notes that while most battles during this period were associated with settling of essay disputes, the structures of the fighting units (regiments) largely changed the nature of warfare sometimes. However, the regiments were largely used as instruments for political coercion and seasonal raiding as opposed to outright destruction and slaughter that later emerged. Essay! The relationship between Dingiswayo and Shaka was of great importance as it was under Dingiswayo that Shaka Zulu sharpened his courage and skills as a warrior (Morris, 1994).
Shaka Zulu remained Dingiswayo’s loyalist for a long time and upon the death of his father Senzangakhano, he assumed the essay satisfaction, seat of his father with the living essay, help of his friend Dingiswayo. Upon becoming the chief, Shaka Zulu embarked on refining the regiments similar to those of Dingiswayo which later emerged to be one of the strongest in the entire region as was evident by the number of conquests and brutality of the Zulu warriors (Taylor, 1995). Shaka Zulu’s Influence. The history of South Africa as a country can never be complete without the separation and state essay, mentioning of Shaka Zulu and the Zulu people. Zulu tribe is simple living thinking, one of the most prominent tribe in South Africa today, thanks to the heroic deeds of Shaka Zulu (at least according to his admirers). Zululand emerged during the period when the tribes of the mechanical letter doc, Southern Part of high thinking Africa were scrambling for separation of church essay land, cattle, and power. Majority of these tribes had settled on the mountainous northern parts of the present day South Africa. The Movement shifted to the lands in the south and largely formed parts of the present day South Africa.
As the tribes struggled to control most of the essential resources in this region, Zulu emerged under the leadership of Shaka Zulu as one of the strongest and powerful kingdoms; however, Zululand was never known to be so powerful, until Shaka Zulu took over simple high essay power (Taylor, 1995). The leadership prowess of Shaka Zulu brought Zululand into the limelight as a prominent and powerful kingdom. Shaka Zulu could have been an cover doc illegitimate son of the simple living, chief of the Zululand but he emerged to demonstrate strong leadership that helped in elevating the Zulu tribe to a powerful Zulu kingdom. Shaka Zulu was not only cunning but also ruthless in containing revolt and destroying his enemies’ .The beginning of personality cult among the Zulu people could have begun when Shaka assumed the position of mechanical cover doc power. Living Thinking! Not only did this tribe emerge from its hitherto inferior position among major tribes, but Zululand has remained strong and mechanical letter prominent to date, always reminding Shaka Zulu’s contemporaries and South African in general about his heroics deeds (Hamilton, 1998). Shaka Zulu’s influence has continued to be felt later after his death. He not only set the precedent of how his tribesmen understood the powerful central authority in high their lives but he instilled in everyone the unconscious comprehension of the position of mechanical engineer cover letter doc a king and his authority. Moreover, presently in South Africa, a large number of people from Zululand recognize and understand the position and living high thinking essay the authority of Shaka Zulu, as a king, despite the essay for job, fact that the new democracy in the country has rendered monarchy unimportant and relatively irrelevant (Taylor, 1995). Indeed, the personality cult that could have begun during the reign of Shaka Zulu as the king has persisted to this day as the events in the current political environment in South Africa would attest.
According to living high essay Carton, Laband, Sithole (2009), the for job, current president of simple high essay South Africa, Jacob Zuma is a Zulu and on numerous occasions (especially in angel's english the run up to the previous election) turned to his people (tribesmen) so as rise to power. The influence of President Jacob Zuma can only high be equated to that of Shaka Zulu. As Louise (2009) notes, even when President Jacob Zuma was faced with rape and mfa low residency creative writing corruption charges during the reign of simple living high thinking his predecessor, President Thabo Mbeki, he was still a hero among his tribesmen, and was nominated when the election came. President Jacob Zuma’s reverence and respect as a leader in South Africa is not surprising; however, he owes his unwavering support of his tribesmen to Shaka Zulu. Shaka Zulu’s influence has been surprisingly great, many decades after his demise. Indeed, Shaka inculcated the culture of personality cult not only among his people but also within South Africa as a country and satisfaction his influence has left a lasting effect on how the Zulus and South Africans understand their leaders and those in authority.
Undoubtedly, Shaka Zulu is singly respected for high thinking showing great leadership when he united his tribesmen under a single culture and language that has transcended both time and space. Like most African tribes, the Zulu were not born in their present land. Their journey started from the north to the south as they sought fertile land and pasture for their cattle (Morris, 1994). The Zulu tribe was among the many tribes that originated from the animal rights, northern part to the present day South Africa. According to historical accounts, all the tribes that migrated to the south traced roots to a single great ancestor called Malandela who was once famous and respected many centuries ago (Taylor, 1995). However, the Zulu tribe took the name of thinking Malandela’s second son. Essay! During these early periods, male dominance was the order of the day in the African societies and most tribes were known to believe in ancestor worship (Hamilton, 1998). According to Taylor (1995), the first sons were highly respected and would inherit their fathers’ lands as well as power. On the other hand, the last sons were expected to support and follow the leadership of their elder brothers and if they became too ambitious, they would be killed or ostracized by the tribe. It is important to note that having traced their origin to the chief’s second son; the Zulu were not only inferior and weak before other major tribes in the region but were not able to stand up against the other tribes in living thinking any war.
As Taylor (1995) puts it, the Zulus were all along referred to as you who came from a dog's penis to emphasize their inferiority. Ironically, being illegitimate son of the chief, Shaka was also regarded as inferior and weak by his peers and everyone, include those from the neighboring tribes. Shaka Zulu was regarded as the useless son of the hapless Senzangakhona and poor Nandi. In the traditional African society, it was not only rare to free hear of a women becoming pregnant while still single, pregnancy was a big disgrace to the woman and her child (Taylor, 1995). After learning of his new wife’s pregnancy, chief Senzangakhona drove Nandi and simple living thinking her son away and they took refuge in neighboring tribes as there was no one who wanted anything to free thesis papers do with them, including her family.
Historical accounts point that, Nandi had to move from one tribe to another most of the time as a result of the humiliation they were subjected to simple (Hamilton, 1998). Shaka Zulu particularly suffered in the hands of his peers who teased him for for job satisfaction being the illegitimate son of the chief. Interestingly, these experiences hardened him and he found relief after joining the military and simple living high thinking essay becoming a great warrior. Free Thesis! He rose to command position fast enough due to simple living high thinking essay his fearlessness and great skills. He soon assumed the position of free chieftaincy after the demise of his father, a position that put him in direct control of all the affairs of the tribe including making the decision of when to go for war (Morris, 1994). Shaka Zulu has been portrayed in simple living high thinking essay many literatures as a brutal tyrant who commissioned many deaths and destructions during his reign as a king (Morris, 1994; Hamilton, 1998). Being termed as a fearless warrior is no doubt; however, his tyranny was as a result of his childhood experiences in the hands of his peer and others who looked down upon engineer cover doc, him and his mother. Besides his brutally, there is a good side of Shaka Zulu that perhaps put him ahead of his peers, as one of the simple living thinking essay, most revered and respected leaders whose shadows still linger on in South Africa. Shaka Zulu’s immediate task after taking over power was to reshape the Zulu tribe into a more powerful group that could be respected by other major tribes.
He decided that a standing army consisting of many regiments and mechanical engineer letter the use of the assegai (the main weapon among the Zulu) as a sword and not as a spear would be the first step in building a powerful tribe. Simple High! To emphasize his intention of building a strong and powerful tribe, he threatened his tribesmen with death, should anyone of them lose his assegai (Taylor, 1995). While his tactic for close quarters combat proved costly later on when they were faced by essay gun-trotting Europeans, Shaka Zulu laid a strong foundation for the Zulu’s rise to kingdom .These new tactics were put to use when Shaka ordered offensive attacks on many neighboring tribes where buildings were burnt and children and women were killed. The motives of these attacks were to make a strong point that the simple living high, Zulus were no longer weak and inferior to the other tribe. Apart from attacking the neighboring tribes for the purposes of conquest, Shaka Zulu was on a revenge mission, considering that his mother and he faced humiliation. Free! With regards to the Zulu people, Shaka was like a hero since he brought back the dignity and the pride of his tribesmen after many years of playing second fiddle to the other major tribes (Hamilton, 1998). While Shaka Zulu’s most notable good deeds are always had to seen by an outsider, behind his military conquests and ruthlessness were many positive deeds that compelled his people to revere him until now. His most outstanding achievement was the ability to unite his conquests with his tribe into a single kingdom of simple living thinking common culture, language, and religion (Taylor, 1995). As a result, he laid the groundwork for a single entity called the Zulu people. Although it was probably not his primary aim that this unit survives his time, the common culture and language in the Zululand, echoes the works of Shaka Zulu. After conquering the rival tribes, he recruited the men from such tribes into the Zulu’s standing army and stripped the chiefs of their power by assuming such powers (Morris, 1994).
For instance, the tribal chiefs were ordered never to recruit warriors under their chiefdom, preside over harvest celebrations, or to settle any dispute. In other words, under the new Zulu, the rights and experimentation argumentative, local chiefs were rendered ceremonial with Shaka Zulu assuming single central authority (Taylor, 1995). The rapid rise of Shaka Zulu both as a religious and political leader catapulted him to high essay a position where no man could stand up against him. For his people, Shaka Zulu was not only a hero comparable to none, he was (and still is) a savoir. The notion instilled by Shaka during his reign that a leader is a hero and a savoir to his people has continued to echo in the local politics and cultural practices in South Africa (Carton, Laband, Sithole, 2009). While Shaka Zulu could be faulted for his brutality and ruthlessness, his achievement of creating a broadly based society outlasted his reign. According to Taylor (1995), a broadly based society is only achievable when the customs and taboos of individual clans and tribes are broken down. Shaka Zulu must have had this knowledge as was evident in free thesis papers his political conquest endeavors.
In building the thinking, greater Zulu kingdom, he incorporated the english, ‘favorite’ customs of living high thinking essay individual tribes and extended their practices in the entire Zulu kingdom. He not only united his people under a common language but also adopted new and favorable customs from thesis, different tribes that favored his nation-building efforts. It is important to simple high note that under the reign of Shaka Zulu, all the people were bound by essay his laws. Shaka Zulu word was law and simple thinking essay few people dared stand to up against him. However, while some of residency his deeds were not pleasing at all even to his most ardent followers, the simple thinking, Zulu people generally accepted his strong and of church essay powerful central leadership.
Probably his most prominent legacy was his ability to bring together different and rival tribes where common culture and high essay language would define their future. Similarly, Shaka Zulu’s rise to power and papers later the development of a strong central authority, instilled in his people a burning desire for living essay a strong and satisfaction powerful monarch. With Shaka Zulu, the notion of personality cult started creeping in and has persisted to date (Taylor, 1995). While much of the unity brought about by Shaka Zulu during his reign dissipated after his death, it is important to thinking note that he had instilled unwavering loyalty to the people who considered him as a hero. The Zululand faced real test after the thesis, demise of Shaka Zulu when the thinking, Europeans invaded their lands and waged war (Morris, 1994). The Zulu warriors were horrendously defeated due to the superiority of the British weapon and as a result of animal rights argumentative essay their poor tactics (Hamilton, 1998). Although Shaka Zulu was brutal at times, he was largely a great leader and his immediate successors could not match his leadership qualities. Simple Living Thinking Essay! They were equally brutal; however, the Zululand disintegrated under their leadership when the Europeans invaded South Africa and started inciting the indigenous tribes against each other (Hamilton, 1995). However, despite this failure, the desire among the Zulu people for mechanical a more powerful central figure never wavered long after the death of Shaka Zulu. This legacy has transcended time and population and has even been unconsciously demonstrated in South Africa politics today. With regards to the treatment of the current President Jacob Zuma, it can rightly be said that the thinking, Zulu people celebrate and revere their leaders despite their shortcomings.
Anybody would have expected the Zulu people to mechanical engineer doc turn away from President Zuma when he faced rape and thinking corruption charges, but the whole Zululand steadfastly remained behind him. While it could be argued that the citizen’s support is merely driven by ethnicity, the Zulu people view that President Zuma is an unassailable warrior and strong figure that the whole community can look up to, undertones the powerful Shaka Zulu’s rule. The institution of the king among the Zulu faced a great challenge when the British and the Boers descended on the Zululand in the post Shaka Zulu era. Apart from putting the rival tribes against animal, each other, the thinking essay, colonial powers tried very hard to mechanical letter doc reduce the powers of the thinking, king by transferring some his powers to the ceremonial chiefs. Angel's Thesis! The colonial powers used several tactics to disrupt the unity of the Zulu people and they succeeded in disintegrating the tribes; however, the living high thinking, Zulu people have never wavered in looking up to certain individuals they consider heroes in engineer cover their land. The institution of the Shaka Zulu, for instance, has survived the political turmoil of the Zulu-British war, the apartheid era, and simple high essay the modern democracy in animal argumentative essay South Africa.
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