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Osler medical essay contest

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Bible Study: Exodus Summary of the Book. Exodus is the second book of the Bible and the second book of the five books of the Law, or the osler medical essay contest, Pentateuch. Essay Planner! This book covers the exodus of the nation of Israel out of Egypt through their journey to the Promised Land. Within the book of Exodus there is language that suggests the author is an eye witness to the events contained within the book. Exodus 17:14; 24:3-7 and 34:27, 28 each talk about God asking or telling Moses to write the contest, current events in a book. This is the chinese business essay, book we read today called Exodus. Both the osler medical essay contest, Old and New Testaments refer to thesis Moses as the contest, author of the Law, and therefore the book of Exodus, just as it does for Genesis. There is no reason to suspect that Moses was not the author. Like Genesis and the rest of the Pentateuch it was written between 1440 to 1400 B.C.

There are indications that it was earlier in the period. The exodus itself took place around 1440 B.C. To provide a history of how God preserved the nation of Israel, thus fulfilling His promise to thesis css tutorial Abraham to make of contest, him a great nation. It chronicles the exodus of Israel out of the land of Egypt. Events such as the Passover and the giving of the essay help, Law are important elements in the book of Exodus. An actual history that teaches a spiritual truth. Humanity is in osler, bondage to sin (Israel in Egypt).

Yet they can have redemption (the exodus) and instruction to spiritual life and growth (the Law). Css Tutorial! Exodus 3:8 #8220;And I am come down to deliver them out of the osler essay, hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and chinese essay the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.#8221; God had promised the essay, land of the Canaanites to by amy essays Abraham. He is now prepared to give it to them. Exodus 12:23, 29-31 #8220;For the essay, LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon role, the lintel, and on the two side posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to medical essay contest come in unto your houses to smite you. And it came to pass, that at midnight the chinese business essay, LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.

And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of osler essay contest, Israel; and go, serve the booth business school essays, LORD, as ye have said.#8221; A critical teaching in the Bible is the event of the Passover where God punishes those who choose to ignore His authority. Osler Medical Essay! In the end the english essay online, Epygtians not only gave the Israelites the ability to leave, but begged them to go away while giving up their gold and silver so that the Israelites would have no reason to return. Exodus 19:4-6 #8220;Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles#8217; wings, and brought you unto myself. Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is essay contest, mine: And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the css tutorial, children of Israel.#8221; God reinforces His promise to bless Abraham#8217;s family and make them into a great and mighty nation. Moses, Pharaoh, Aaron, Joshua. Moses is born to an Israelite slave family, but is adopted by the Pharaoh#8217;s daughter.

He flees Egypt and works as a shepherd before being called to lead the Israelites from Egypt to the Promised land. He demands the release of the Children of Israel. Osler Essay! The story of the 10 plagues of Egypt and the ultimate release of Israel. The Israeli wandering in the wilderness and the 10 Commandments are main stories in the book of Exodus. Like Genesis, Exodus can easily be divided in at least two ways. The first is a simple two-theme division and another is based on of technology in communication essay the main events. Two main themes: A second division is through main events: Israel in Slavery (chapter 1) Exodus (chapters 2-14) Journey to Mt.

Sinai (chapters 15-18) Giving of the Law (chapters 19-24) Establishment of the Tabernacle and Priesthood (chapters 25-40) Moses was born to an Israelite slave family. He was then adopted by the Pharaoh#8217;s daughter and brought up to have great power in Egypt. He fled Egypt, after being discovered killing an Egyptian, and worked as a shepherd for 40 years. During his time as a shepherd God visited him at a burning bush to send him back to Egypt and lead the Israelites to the land promised to osler essay Abraham. Pharaoh would not release the Israelites, but instead made them work harder as slaves. Nine of the ten plagues effected the Egyptians, but did not touch the Israelites living next door. The final plague, from english essay, which comes the Passover celebration, was when God killed the firstborn of each family who did not show faith in osler contest, Him and His promised salvation.

The Israelites were allowed to leave Egypt, but Pharaoh immediately followed them. The Children of Israel crossed the Red Sea on dry land, but the Egyptians were drowned during their attempt to cross. They approached the land promised by God, but because of giants in the land, they were scared to enter. Of Technology Essay! They did not trust God to help them conquer the land #8220;flowing with milk and honey.#8221; As a result they wandered in the wilderness for 40 years. During that time God gave the Law. Most people are familiar with only the 10 Commandments; however, there were several books of the Law that was given during this time.

The Tabernacle and the Priesthood were established at osler medical the end of the book of Exodus.

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Essay: Jack Welch as a transformational leader. Leadership is the essay collective action of everyone to influence. One’s behavior actions and words determine how he or she will influence ( Scott, 2005). Booth Essays. In my paper, I will explore the important concept of osler medical essay contest leadership and more particularly transformation leadership. I will discuss the thesis transformational model of leadership as I base Jack Welch as a good example of such a leader in the modern workplace. From the research it will come out clearly that leadership styles and capabilities that are associated with effectiveness, leadership competencies have been essential to all organizations. Leadership is basically the collective action of anyone to influence. Ones behavior actions and words determine how he or she can influence. (Scott, 2005). As such, a leader is someone who guides other in doing what is required but does not command them.

On the same note, leader is osler essay contest, born but not trained. Through his captivate nature, something that is well brought about by his visionary nature, he has been able to transform his company to the next level. Transformation is all about the ability of the leader to be an culture influential figure, motivational factor and the capability of osler essay contest empower others into putting an effort into essay effectiveness of their organizations. More research thus needs to be done regarding what leadership entails especially in the modern working environment that gets complex with time. Type of leadership #038; Core competencies. An understanding of the main qualities that make a leader is vital as it is the qualities that bring out the different kinds of leaders. Emerging approaches on osler medical essay contest leadership tend to be result-oriented and driven. Charismatic leader’s exhibit ambitious move and are aware of the main aims and essay, are able to communicate effectively .Leaders have Strong moral and self-discipline. Charisma attracts people around and provides for chances of competition thus success attributive nature of leaders ten to link all happenings to specific cause. An approach of exchange relationship between leaders and the led bring closer faster development and goal achievement.

Transformative leaders tend to be the contest most popular type of leaders in that they forego personal need is for the benefit of the general community. Transformational leaders can be identified as people who recognize potential in their subordinates and help in developing it. Thesis Css Tutorial. Transformational type of leadership is identified by mentoring and empowering employees to contribute. This is illustrated here in the diagram. Transformational leaders pay attention to worries also developmental wishes of their followers, help them in looking at old problems from new perspectives, and have the ability of exciting and inspiring followers towards achieving organizational goals.

Joseph (2010) denotes that transformational type leadership, if contrasted with transactional leadership appears to be strongly associated with lower forms of turnover rates, increased productivity besides employee satisfaction. Transformational leaders are viewed by superiors as being more competent, higher performers and more promotable. Jack Welch as a Transformational Leader. Having joined GE in 1960, Jack Welch was in 1981 named CEO of GE. In the early years Jack Welch as CEO initiated a plan of restructuring that consisted of cuts in massive jobs, placing the many businesses in number one or in number two according to osler medical essay contest, various respective segments and unprofitable ones could be sold. Jack Welch although celebrated as the leader of the global manufacturer, always famous for the technological prowess, he utilized the actual human process in bringing change into the vast GE organization. Showing respect to every individual because of the essential force brought towards organizational change, Jack formed the thesis model of extraordinary performance which each leader of a corporate may learn from.

Under Jack’s leadership, the managers have a varied range of latitude that can help build the GE units in the entrepreneurial fashion. Being determined in harnessing the joint power of the employees of GE, Welch also had to redefine the correlation between subordinates and the boss. An individual being the source of innovation and creativity as written by medical contest Welch, people should have to agree that the better way that one can manage a group of css tutorial people is by just going out of their own way. Welch developed a 4 E leadership model; the medical essay contest E’s here are acronyms to the following as discussed next. i. Energy- ‘go, go, go’ is the motto of the individuals who have energy. These people have energy that is not bound and always get up early each day ready to face any job.

ii. Energizers-these people know how to make others perform. They always outline visions and in many occasions get people who will perform it. They know how to excite people about a crusade or a cause. They give others credit selflessly when thing are right but when wrong they accept responsibility quickly.

iii. Edge-these are the competitive type. They know well how to make difficult decisions, for english essay instance, hiring, promoting and firing stand their way. iv. Execute-the essential one to the whole model. Without good results, other e’s have little use.

The executers recognize when productivity and activity ain’t same. Medical Essay. They are also capable of changing edge and energy into work and results. A Case study on planner the 2 -decade transformation of General Electric under the leadership of Welch. In 1981, as the Chief Executive Officer, Jack Welch’s mission was to essay, give more energy to the General Electric, one of the largest companies in America. By just reviewing the company’s mission and values, he made GE to experience an persuasive essay increase in the capital base from USD 24 billion to USD 74billion which formed a good base for the readiness to contest, meet more competitors among other predicaments in the future.

He focused on the realignment of the objectives and the motivation hence making the thesis css tutorial managers stretch to limits that were previously unknown. Firms that did not merit to either the first or second positions in performance in the industrial development were met by blows such as divestment or faced closure. Though at some point he was termed as a destroyer, he is known to have caused a great impact in medical essay contest the restructuring of the GE to become one of the best corporate organizations globally. The management and motivation structure of thesis Jack Welch entailed three major areas: i. He set the goals and prepared the firm on a corporate basis for the purposes of the competition challenges; ii. Osler. He also set to empower all the workers at all the two kinds by amy essays levels of the medical essay organizations; and. iii. Ensuring that there was a communication of the in communication new goals and visions via the whole organization by osler medical way of communication tools, for instance, extensive programs of training, forming new teams as well as the business school 3600 review processes. In the osler essay contest mind of Welch, he purposely had the vision of transforming and creating a firm which will have people at all the levels being held accountable for their deeds, and in booth school essays the long run help in making decisions which will make the osler medical essay work better. His motive was not to control the employees but to liberate the workers. Welch termed this as forming an organization from barriers and one that will facilitate employees to have self-direction and motivation to enhance realization of their goals.

He had discovered that GE was being run the same way it was organized many years since its incorporation near the turn of century. Welch found out that the company was specifically represented by an overwhelming nine stacks of management that lay between the shop floor and chinese business, the CEO. The bureaucracy enhanced a non-responsive and an inward focus in osler medical essay the company where the workers had a hell of chinese culture essay time in communicating with one another. As a matter of fact, had it not been that Welch caused a massive cost restructuring in the GE, the medical essay analysts had projected that the GE would plunge into a hole of losses by planner the end of the year 1982. In addressing the issue of GE falling into unproductive business, Welch did a complete overhaul of the management structure and thus eliminated all the osler essay contest layers of management, consolidated the booth business jobs that seemed to overlap and the business units and made all the workers at every level to be held accountable for their work.

They put to a halt to gathering unnecessary data as relates to osler essay, finances and also did away with reports that were regarded as unnecessary. Previously, the business managers usually requested for daily reports that contained much detail that often caused a chunk of a high stack of by amy paper which made the osler contest sheer mass of detailed pieces of information impossible to be mastered thus making the information useless. In relation to the firm equipment, the operators started being accountable for the quality and english help, standard of their work thus reducing the essence of having the inspectors. The net effect was that the workers had the chance of to get rid of the aspects of their work that was not productive as well as unnecessary. The most significant thing is osler medical, that this has been the Work-Out plan that has led to the opening of the communication channels that helped the inception of innovative change. Currently, the Welch favors the Work-Out which to him is an empowerment concept. A great number of employees in GE get a chance to be together to share ideas and thoughts as well as the booth school essays know-how amid building and essay contest, fostering a creative and teamwork environment. The plan facilitates communicating within the firm and thesis, responsibility with the ultimate goal being to drive above team performance. The rationale of giving the members the chance to table their ideas in the decision making was to osler medical, promote individual openness and enable them to constructively challenge their leaders thus promoting a more motivated working environment. This was thus a management strategy that was a success to Welch. All the Work-Outs involved the follow-up activities where the commitments previously assigned were deliberated upon and the issue of accountability was enforced.

The concept of empowerment has been of two types. First, the english help workers are actually satisfied by the fact that they are allowed to give out their concerns and second, the company has been able to benefit from the insights that are usually shared in the Work-Outs. Under the auspices of the CEO, Welch, the GE realized that people are not like machines however each person has the potential of osler medical essay contest enhancing productivity. Knowledge of how best to use the human resource gives the company a competitive edge as well as making the worker feel an air of importance in the process of production and generally feel motivated. In as much as it is hard to determine and measure the importance of empowerment, the GE has the belief that the company’s success in the future will ultimately indicate that it was a right move to have been made. The significant point is to investigate the way leaders like Welch is able to make the decisions that empowerment is the right mechanism and how they generally decide that as the best mechanism for their firms. In order to encourage the setting of goals and empowerment within the GE, Welch just needed to influence the establishment of vivid lines of communication in the firm. Persuasive Essay Planner. He had realized that many workers came to GE from different backgrounds and skills. However he did not want to take them for granted and reshaping them with the philosophy of GE but wanted them to be free thinkers. He encouraged the art of free thinking and osler medical essay contest, therefore challenges the status quo. Essays. The concept of open communication is of essence in osler medical contest GE since it facilitated his objective of two kinds tan critical motivating the workers to think outside the box.

This is because the channels work in both directions and thus give the workers the chance to air their grievances and thus work towards creating a consensus for action. It also helps in the motivation of the workers since that inculcates the feeling of directly contributing to essay contest, the success of the company. Cultural change processes. The Work-Out process in the GE was formed in 1988 as part of the drive for better productivity and efficiency. In the initial stages, the intention of the Work-Outs was for the identification and by amy, elimination of the unwanted processes that were left over from the past years where the osler medical contest management structure contained more layers. Upon the process of persuasive restructuring, a lot of groups performed more work with lesser workforce as compared to making comprehensive operational changes.

The Work-Out process involved the identification of an area of need improvement and putting people together from all the sides of the design process, marketing process, production process as well as the sales process to identify a better method. The Work-Outs discuss the issues and put some recommendations on contest record (Richard, 2009). The recommendations are then presented to the managers who are accountable such that they may accept or reject the proposals at the instance. The whole process leads to responsive leadership and a greater rate of change in the organization. During the inception of the persuasive planner Work-Out, numerous groups attacked the things that did not seem to make sense in medical essay the new GE.

As the role in communication Work-Out plan underwent evolution, the osler medical contest customers and partners of supply were incorporated in the process. The plan is currently part of the school day to day life in GE. Jack Welch will be remembered for causing changes such as: ‘ Merger #038; Acquisition- he is remembered to have made around 200 mergers and acquisition with his first acquisition with Hungary Lighting in 1989 and the reason behind the success of the mergers was the incorporation of the contest integration model. This facilitated the future of essay planner GE. ‘ Delayering- on assuming office as CEO, Welch saw the osler essay contest degree of the large bureaucracy in GE. There were a lot of managers and in communication essay, thus he embarked on the removal of the whole system of management which formed Welch’s hardware revolution.

He dismantled the walls of separating the osler medical essay manufacturing and marketing functions within the GE. ‘ E-initiative- upon assuming office, Welch recommended that everything in the GE be made digital. English Essay. This, according to him, was an important step towards making the firm faster and agile. The digitalization facilitated sales of up to USD 8 billion in 2000 through the internet. The e- initiative also helped the GE to save on the operational costs. ‘ Globalization- According to him, GE should be moved to the global arena in order to enhance competition.

Therefore in 1980s, GE started a revolution to ensure placement of GE in the global markets. With the key growth initiative, the essay concept of globalization has had a role in helping GE rise at almost a double digit in rates. Booth Essays. Currently, globalization is a major component of the GE fabric. ‘ GE Six Sigma Quality Coach- GE is an internet based mentoring program that facilitates in the training of the GE workforce on the quality initiative (Kim, 2009). This is contest, a significant tool that helps GE achieve the Six Sigma Quality.

‘ Work-Out- this was Welch’s cultural initiative that was responsible for english help online the changing of attitudes and behaviors within the contest GE. Essays. The Work-Out made sure that the management listened to employees giving them a voice the making of decisions. Work-Out is credited for having caused a culture devoid of boundaries which was helpful in creating GE’s learning engine. The few simple ideas that Jack’s attitude of management break into are; ensuring flow of free information in the whole organization, hierarchical break down and to essay contest, encourage people to speak, hear and feel free to the new ideas. At the age of 36 when Jack first became the vice president in GE he received every person’s call when a problem arose regardless of the persons post and this was the organization which Jack built in business culture essay terms of organizational communication. Jack successful transformed the medical essay contented behemoth to a strong company that is prepared to face the essay competition of the world. ‘ By getting out layers of the bureaucracy who are not necessary and osler, organization flattening, Jack enlightened the employees and also empowering them in making decisions and an effect to their jobs, also the whole company.

Also he relied on satisfaction slope and the stretch goals to push further to achievement of new goals in the company. ‘ Relaying via the various communication means, motivational mediums and training there was an booth school essays addition of empowerment. Welch also underlined all his words to accompany actions and also exemplary attitude. Medical Essay Contest. By use of 3600 review process, suitable bonus schemes and thesis, the structural changes in osler the organization, Jack formed and started channels of communication at chinese business GE which allowed for networking that was unprecedented, openness and medical essay contest, teamwork to be seen at GE. ‘ Every factor combined to form motivational force for all the employees in persuasive essay GE. Medical Essay Contest. In turn, the motivation also leads to an outstanding performance in General Electric Corporation and Jack Welch. In conclusion, a leader is someone who guides other in doing what is required but does not command them. Transformation is persuasive essay, all about the ability of the leader to be an influential figure, motivational factor and the capability of empower others into putting an effort into effectiveness of their organizations. It is medical essay contest, also clear that emerging approaches on leadership tend to be result-oriented and driven. Charismatic leader’s exhibit ambitious move and are aware of the main aims and are able to communicate effectively .leaders have Strong moral and self-discipline. Chinese Culture Essay. Charisma attracts people around and provides for chances of competition thus success attributive nature of leaders ten to link all happenings to specific cause.

An approach of exchange relationship between leaders and the led bring closer faster development and goal achievement. Transformative leaders tend to be the most popular type of leaders in that they forego personal need is for the benefit of the general community. Joseph G.2010. Residential Construction Management: Managing According to the Lifecycle. J. Ross Publishing.pg121. Richard D.2009.Management.

Cengage Learning.pp514-15. Credit Suisse (Research Institute).2012. Gender diversity and corporate performance. Osler Contest. Zurich, Switzerland, 13 July 2012. Credit Suisse AG. Scott N . 2005. Executive Leadership for Effective Administration. Pearson/Allyn and Bacon. Kim H. Booth Business Essays. 2009. Six Sigma for the New Millennium: A CSSBB Guidebook’s Quality Press.

Marc H . 2004. High Performance Teams: How to osler medical contest, Make Them Work. Greenwood Publishing Group. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Management essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help online, help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Medical. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Management work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

This Management essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Jack Welch as a transformational leader . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/management/essay-jack-welch-as-a-transformational-leader/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 21-12-16 - Public relations 06-11-16 - Total safety management 05-11-16 - Public Relations and Crisis Management in Tertiary Institutions 03-11-16 - Talent management 26-08-16 - Internal and business, external factors that can affect the supply chain management - Cultism in osler medical essay contest tertiary institution 28-07-16 - Organisational Behaviour 29-06-16 - Logistics survey 05-03-16 - Differences between leaders and managers 04-03-16 - Mass production of goods and planner, work flow.

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alang photo essay I had been warned that it would be difficult to get into Bangladesh’s shipbreaking yards. “It used to be a tourist attraction,” a local man told me. Osler Contest. “People would come watch men tear apart ships with their bare hands. But they don’t let in booth business outsiders anymore.” I walked a few miles along the road that parallels the Bay of osler, Bengal, just north of the city of Chittagong, where 80 active shipbreaking yards line an eight-mile stretch of the coast. Each yard was secured behind high fences topped with razor wire. Guards were posted, and signs warned against photography. Outsiders had become especially unwelcome in recent years after an persuasive essay explosion killed several workers, prompting critics to say the owners put profits above safety. “But they can’t block the sea,” the local said. So late one afternoon I hired a fisherman to take me on a water tour of the yards. At high tide the sea engulfed the rows of beached oil tankers and containerships, and we slipped in and out medical essay of the deep shadows cast by their towering smokestacks and superstructures. Some vessels remained intact, as if they had just arrived. Others had been reduced to skeletons, the steel skin cut away to reveal their cavernous black holds.

We drifted alongside barnacle-encrusted hulls and help online beneath the blades of massive propellers. I read off names and flags painted on the sterns: Front Breaker (Comoros), V Europe (Marshall Islands), Glory B (Panama). I wondered about cargoes they had carried, ports where they had called, and crews that had sailed them. The life span of such ships is roughly 25 to 30 years, so most of these likely had been launched during the medical contest 1980s. Essay Planner. But the rising cost to insure and osler essay contest maintain aging vessels makes them unprofitable to operate. Now their value was contained mostly in by amy tan critical essays their steel bodies. Nearly all the demolition crews had left work for the day, and the ships stood silent, except for the gurgling in their bowels and the occasional echo of metal clanking. The air hung heavy with the odor of brine and diesel fuel. Making our way around one hull, we heard laughter and came upon a group of naked boys who had swum out to a half-submerged piece of wreckage and were using it as a diving platform. Just beyond the line of osler medical, ships, fishermen were casting their nets for schools of tiny ricefish, a local delicacy.

Suddenly a shower of sparks rained down from the business culture stern several stories above us. Osler Medical Contest. A head appeared over the side, then arms waving vigorously. English Online. “Move away! We’re cutting this section,” a man yelled down at us. “Do you want to die?” Over the past decade India recycled more ships, but Bangladesh led in deadweight tonnage, meaning the osler biggest vessels generally ended up on chinese business essay, its beaches. China and osler medical contest Turkey enforce more safety measures than the others and take steps to by amy tan critical essays reduce the osler essay contest environmental impact. Source: IHS Maritime. Oceangoing vessels are not meant to be taken apart. They’re designed to withstand extreme forces in some of the planet’s most difficult environments, and they’re often constructed with toxic materials, such as asbestos and lead. When ships are scrapped in help online the developed world, the osler process is more strictly regulated and expensive, so the business bulk of the world’s shipbreaking is done in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, where labor is medical essay contest cheap and oversight is persuasive essay minimal.

Industry reforms have come in fits and starts. India now requires more protections for workers and the environment. But in contest Bangladesh, where 194 ships were dismantled in 2013, the essay help online industry remains extremely dirty and dangerous. It also remains highly lucrative. Activists in osler contest Chittagong told me that in three to four months the average ship in Bangladeshi yards returns roughly a one-million-dollar profit on by amy, an investment of five million, compared with less than $200,000 profit in Pakistan. I called Jafar Alam, former head of the osler essay contest Bangladesh Ship Breakers Association. He denied that profit margins were that high. “It varies by ship and depends on many factors, such as the current price of role in communication essay, steel,” he said.

Whatever the actual profits, they are realized by doggedly recycling more than 90 percent of each ship. The process begins after a ship-breaker acquires a vessel from an medical essay contest international broker who deals in outdated ships. A captain who specializes in beaching large craft is hired to deliver it to the breaker’s yard, generally a sliver of beach barely a hundred yards wide. Once the ship is mired in the mud, its liquids are siphoned out, including any remaining diesel fuel, engine oil, and firefighting chemicals, which are resold. Then the machinery and fittings are stripped. Everything is removed and sold to salvage dealersfrom enormous engines, batteries, generators, and miles of copper wiring to the crew bunks, portholes, lifeboats, and electronic dials on the bridge. English Essay Online. After the ship has been reduced to a steel hulk, swarms of laborers from the poorest parts of Bangladesh use acetylene torches to slice the carcass into medical pieces. These are hauled off the beach by teams of loaders, then melted down and rolled into rebar for use in construction. “It sounds like a good business until you consider the poison that is soaking into our land,” says Muhammed Ali Shahin, an activist with the NGO Shipbreaking Platform. “Until you’ve met the widows of two kinds, young men who were crushed by falling pieces of steel or suffocated inside a ship.” At 37 Shahin has been working for more than 11 years to raise awareness about the plight of the osler essay contest men who toil in these yards.

The industry, he says, is controlled by a few powerful Chittagong families who also hold stakes in the ancillary businesses, including the steel rerolling mills. Shahin insists he’s not blind to his country’s desperate need for the jobs shipbreaking creates. “I do not say shipbreaking must stop entirely,” he says. “But it must be done cleaner and safer with better treatment for the workers.” His criticism isn’t reserved just for Bangladeshi ship-breakers. “In the english online West you don’t let people pollute your countries by breaking up ships on your beaches. Why is it OK for poor workers to risk their lives to dispose of your unwanted ships here?” In the sprawling shantytowns that have grown up around the yards, I met dozens of the workers about whom Shahin is most concerned: the men who cut the essay contest steel and haul it off the beaches. Many had deep, jagged scars. “Chittagong tattoos,” one man called them. Some men were missing fingers. A few were blind in one eye. In one home I meet a family whose four sons worked in the yards. The oldest, Mahabub, 40, spent two weeks as a cutter’s helper before witnessing a man burn to death when his torch sparked a pocket of gas belowdecks. “I didn’t even collect my pay for culture essay, fear they wouldn’t let me leave,” he says, explaining that bosses often intimidate workers to keep silent about accidents.

He points to a photo in osler contest a small glass cabinet. “This is Jahangir, my second oldest brother,” Mahabub says. Jahangir went to work at 15, after their father died. “He was a cutter in role in communication essay the Ziri Subedar yard and was fatally injured there in 2008.” He and his fellow workers had been cutting a large section for medical essay contest, three days, but it wouldn’t fall. During a rainstorm they took shelter beneath the booth school piece, and it suddenly gave way. The third brother, Alamgir, 22, is not home. He had been assisting a cutter when he fell through a hatch on a tanker, plunging about 90 feet into the hold.

Miraculously, enough water had seeped into osler medical contest the bottom to break his fall. One of his friends risked his own life to shinny down a rope and help pull him out. Alamgir quit the medical next day. Now he serves tea to the managers in the yard’s office. The youngest brother, Amir, 18, still works as a cutter’s helper. He is a wiry boy with smooth, unscarred skin and a nervous smile. I ask if he’s scared by his brothers’ experiences. “Yes,” he says, smiling shyly as if unsure what to booth say next. As we talk, a thunderclap shakes the tin roof.

Another boom follows. I look outside, expecting to see the medical contest onset of one of Bangladesh’s famously violent monsoons, but the sun is shining. English. “It’s a large piece falling from a ship,” says the boy. Osler Essay Contest. “We hear this every day.”

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Copyright and Fair Use in the UMUC Online or Face-to-Face Classroom. The information presented here is only general information. Legal advice must be provided in the course of an attorney-client relationship specifically with reference to all the osler facts of the particular situation under consideration. Such is not the role of technology in communication case here, and osler medical contest accordingly, the information presented here must not be relied on essay help as a substitute for obtaining legal advice from a licensed attorney. Updated January 28, 2011. Consistent with BOR Policy IV-3.20, the UMUC Library has developed guidelines for the use of copyrighted materials. These guidelines address library and osler contest educational fair use as well as fair use exceptions for research and scholarly work.

The purpose of this document is to help UMUC faculty understand copyright and fair use in the classroom, and it may be useful to UMUC students as well. The UMUC Library addresses copyright and intellectual property issues because of its role in teaching and promoting information literacy. Information literacy is defined as a set of abilities requiring individuals to recognize when information is needed and of technology in communication essay have the ability to locate, evaluate, and contest use effectively the planner needed information (Association of College and Research Libraries, 2010, para. Essay Contest? 1). One of the information literacy competency standards of the Association for College and help Research Libraries concerning the effective use of information states that “an information literate individual is able to . understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the medical contest use of information, and access and use information ethically and business school essays legally” (ACRL, 2010, para. 2). Simply put, copyright is a legal device that provides the creator of medical essay contest a work of art or literature, or a work that conveys information or ideas, the right to two kinds by amy essays control how the work is used (Fishman, 2008, p. 6).The intent of copyright is to advance the progress of knowledge by medical contest giving an essay author of a work an economic incentive to create new works (Loren, 2000, para. 12). Tangible, original expressions can be copyrighted.

This means, for example, that a verbal presentation that is not recorded or written down cannot be copyrighted. However, anything that is tangible can be copyrighted. There are three fundamental requirements for something to be copyrighted, according to the United States Copyright Office (2008, p. Osler Medical? 3): Fixation: The item must be fixed in thesis, some way. The manner of osler fixation may be just about culture essay, anything. For example, fixation occurs if something is written on a piece of paper, posted online, or stored on a computer or phone, or on an audio or video device. Originality: The work must be original. Originality includes a novel or a student's e-mail message to a professor. Contest? Both are considered examples of original expression.

It is not necessary for the work to be completely original. Works may be combined, adapted, or transformed in new ways that would make them eligible for copyright protection. Minimal Creativity: The work must include something that is above and beyond the persuasive essay original. Verbatim use is not considered original. Reference to the original work that is used to discuss a new concept would be considered original, however. Osler Medical Essay? Creativity need only be extremely slight for tan critical, the work to be eligible for medical essay, protection.

The law merely states this is original works of essay online authorship (United States Copyright Office, 2008, p. Osler? 3). Works in two kinds, the public domain: Ideas are in the public domain. Facts are in the public domain. Medical Contest? Words, names, slogans, or other short phrases also cannot be copyrighted. However, slogans, for example, can be protected by business school trademark law. Blank forms. Government works, which include: Judicial opinions. Public ordinances. Administrative rulings.

Works created by federal government employees as part of their official responsibility. Works for which copyright was not obtained or copyright has expired (extremely rare!) (U.S. Copyright Office, 2008, p. 3). It is a common misperception that state employees and contractors performing work on behalf of the medical essay contest federal government cannot copyright their work. Persuasive Planner? Unless it is explicitly stated in the contract between the osler medical essay contest government and a contractor, federal government contractors are permitted to copyright their works as can state employees (Commerce, Energy, NASA, Defense Information Managers Group, 2008, p. 19). Copyright provides authors fairly substantial control over two kinds tan critical, their work. The four basic protections are: The right to make copies of the work. The right to osler medical sell or otherwise distribute copies of the work. The right to prepare new works based on planner the protected work. The right to perform the osler medical protected work (such as a stage play or painting) in public (U.S.

Copyright Office, 2008, p. Persuasive Essay? 1). Fair use is the most significant limitation on the copyright holder's exclusive rights (United States Copyright Office, 2010, para. 1). Deciding whether the use of a work is osler medical, fair IS NOT a science. Persuasive? There are no set guidelines that are universally accepted. Instead, the osler individual who wants to use a copyrighted work must weigh four factors: The purpose and character of the use: Is the new work merely a copy of the original? If it is simply a copy, it is english help online, not as likely to osler medical essay contest be considered fair use. Does the new work offer something above and of technology in communication beyond the original? Does it transform the original work in some way?

If the work is altered significantly, used for another purpose, appeals to a different audience, it more likely to be considered fair use (NOLO, 2010, para. 6). Osler? Recent case law has increasingly focused on transformative use to make fair use determinations – for a discussion of this topic see Lultschik, 2010. Is the use of the copyrighted work for nonprofit or educational purposes? The use of copyrighted works for nonprofit or educational purposes is essay planner, more likely to be considered fair use (NOLO, 2010, para. 6). The nature of the copyrighted work: Is the copyrighted work a published or unpublished work? Unpublished works are less likely to be considered fair use. Is the copyrighted work out of print? If it is, it is more likely to be considered fair use.

Is the work factual or artistic? The more a work tends toward artistic expression, the less likely it will be considered fair use (NOLO, 2010, para. 9). The amount and substantiality of the portion used: The more you use, the medical essay contest less likely it will be considered fair use. Does the amount you use exceed a reasonable expectation? If it approaches 50 percent of the entire work, it is essay, not likely to be considered a fair use of the copyrighted work. Is the particular portion used likely to adversely affect the author's economic gain? If you use the heart or essence of a work, it is osler medical, less likely your use will be considered fair (NOLO, 2010, para. 13).

The effect of chinese business use on the potential market for the copyrighted work: The more the new work differs from the osler medical original, the less likely it will be considered an infringement. Does the work appeal to the same audience as the original? If the persuasive essay answer is yes, it will likely be considered an infringement. Does the new work contain anything original? If it does, it is more likely the use of the copyrighted material will be seen as fair use (NOLO, 2010, para. 11). What are the medical Rules for Fair Use for Instructors? Copying by instructors must meet tests for brevity and thesis css tutorial spontaneity: Brevity refers to how much of the work you can copy.

Spontaneity refers to how many times you can copy and how much planning it would take to otherwise seek and obtain permission from a copyright holder (U.S. Osler Medical Contest? Copyright Office, 2009, p. 6). According to the rule, the need to copy should occur closely in time to the need to use the copies. If you use something repeatedly, it is less likely to be considered fair use. The expectation is two kinds tan critical, that you will obtain permission from the copyright holder as soon as it is feasible. Using something over a period of multiple semesters or years is not within the spirit of the fair use exception. In addition, there are recommendations for what the U.S. Copyright Office calls special works. Certain works in medical contest, poetry, prose, or in ‘poetic prose’ which often combine language with illustrations and which are intended sometimes for children and at other times for a more general audience fall short of business 2,500 words in their entirety (U.S. Copyright Office, 2009, p. 6).

Special works should never be copied in their entirety. An excerpt of no more than two pages or 10 percent, whichever is less, is the rule for osler medical essay contest, special works (U.S. Copyright Office, 2009, p. 6). The use of the essays copies should be for one course at one school. The copies should include a notice of copyright acknowledging the author of the work (U.S. Copyright Office, 2009, p. 7). UMUC recommends that its faculty and instructors consider both the special guidelines for instructors and take into account the four factors that are used to evaluate fair use when they are deciding what and osler medical essay how much of two kinds by amy essays a copyrighted work to use.

In General, What Counts as Fair Use? Keeping in mind the rules for instructors listed above, and that the source(s) of osler medical essay contest all materials must be cited in order to avoid plagiarism, general examples of limited portions of published materials that might be used in the classroom under fair use for a limited period of time, as discussed by the U.S. Copyright Office (2009, p. 6), include: A chapter from a book (never the entire book). An article from a periodical or newspaper. A short story, essay, or poem. One work is the norm whether it comes from an individual work or an anthology.

A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon or picture from a book, periodical, or newspaper. Poetry Copies of a poem of 250 words or less that exists on two pages or less or 250 words from a longer poem. Prose Copies of an article, story or essay that are 2,500 words or less or excerpts up to 1,000 words or 10 percent of the total work, whichever is less. Illustrations Copies of a chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture contained in a book or periodical issue (U.S. Copyright Office, 2009, p. Business Essay? 6). Making multiple copies of different works that could substitute for the purchase of books, publisher's reprints, or periodicals. Copying and using the same work from semester to semester. Copying and using the same material for several different courses at the same or different institutions. Osler Essay? Copying more than nine separate times in a single semester (U.S.

Copyright Office, 2009, p. 7). When you intend to use the materials for commercial purposes. When you want to use the materials repeatedly. When you want to use a work in its entirety, especially when it is longer than 2,500 words (U.S. Copyright Office, 2009, p. 7). How Do I Get Permission? How Can the Library Help?

The UMUC Library will assist UMUC faculty in obtaining permission for thesis css tutorial, copyright-protected materials for medical essay, use in UMUC classes. The Library can place copies of copyrighted articles, readings, and thesis css tutorial short audio or video clips in the eReserves area of medical essay your online classroom. See the eReserves FAQ for an overview of the process and How to Request eReserves for instructions on submitting requests. To use materials outside of UMUC courses, you must obtain permission yourself. You may use this sample letter as a guide. Copyright and Electronic Publishing. The same copyright protections exist for tan critical, the author of osler medical essay contest a work regardless of thesis css tutorial whether the work is in print, in a library research database, a blog, an online discussion board or comment space, or any social media formats. If you make a copy from an online source for your personal use, it is more likely to be seen as fair use. Essay? However, if you make a copy and put it online, it is less likely to be considered fair use.

Note that the Internet IS NOT the public domain. There are both copyrighted and uncopyrighted materials online. Role Of Technology In Communication Essay? Always assume a work online is copyrighted. Tips for Using Online Information. Always credit the source of your information. If you do not see an individual named as the author, do not forget that the author may in fact be the organization responsible for the Web site.

Credit the organization. Find out if the author of a work (e.g., text, video, audio, graphic, etc.) provides information on how to use his or her work. If the author provides explicit guidelines, follow them. Whenever feasible, ask the copyright holder for permission. If no copyright holder is medical, specifically named, do not assume that the material is in the public domain. Assume that the copyright holder is the author, whether it be an individual or an organization. Persuasive Essay Planner? Keep a copy of your request for permission and the permission received. UMUC Educational Multimedia Guidelines. The guidelines provide guidance for the use, without permission, of portions of osler medical contest lawfully acquired copyrighted works, and are based on the U.S. Of Technology? Copyright Office guidelines mentioned above (see U.S.

Copyright Office, 2009) and osler essay the findings of the Conference on Fair Use (see Lehman, 1998). The guidelines are intended to apply to educational multimedia projects that incorporate educators' original material, such as course notes or commentary, together with various copyrighted media formats, including motion media, music, text material, and graphics illustrations. The guidelines are voluntary and do not have the force of law. If you follow the guidelines, it is more likely that your use is essays, fair use. The guidelines are safe minimums. The newly created work that includes copyrighted material may only be used for learning activities. Other uses, such as selling the work commercially, require permission (Lehman, 1998, p. 51). Students may incorporate portions of copyrighted materials when producing a project for osler, a specific course. Students may perform and display their own projects and use them in essay, their portfolio or use the project for osler essay, job interviews or as supporting materials for application to graduate school (Lehman, 1998, p. 52). Faculty may include portions of copyrighted works when producing their own multimedia project for persuasive planner, their teaching in support of curriculum-based instructional activities at educational institutions. Faculty may use their project for: Assignments for student self-study For online instruction provided that the network is osler medical, secure and thesis css tutorial is designed to prevent unlawful copying For professional conferences, presentations, or workshops For their professional portfolio (Lehman, 1998, p. Medical Essay? 52).

The fair use of copyrighted material in multimedia projects lasts for two years only. After two years, obtain permission before using the project again (Lehman, 1998, p. 53). Types of media and permissible amounts. Motion media, e.g., movies, film clips, excerpts from television shows, etc.: Up to 10 percent of the total or three minutes, whichever is less. Essay? Text material: Up to 10 percent of the osler essay contest total or 1,000 words, whichever is less. An entire poem of less than 250 words may be used, but no more than three poems by one poet or five poems by different authors in an anthology. For poems exceeding 250 words, 250 words should be used but no more than three excerpts from one poet or five excerpts from different poets in essay planner, the same work. Music, lyrics, and music video: Up to 10 percent of the work but no more than 30 seconds of the music or lyrics from an individual musical work.

Illustrations or photographs: No more than five images from one artist or photographer. No more than 10% or 15 images, whichever is less, from a collection. Osler Contest? Numerical data sets: Up to 10 percent or 2,500 fields or cell entries, whichever is chinese essay, less, from a copyrighted database or data table. Copying of an educator’s multimedia project which contains materials used under fair use: No more than two copies may be made of a project (Lehman, 1998, p. 53-54). When you intend to use the project for commercial or non-educational purposes. When you intend to duplicate the project beyond the two copies allowed by the guidelines.

When you plan to osler medical contest distribute the project beyond the business school essays scope of the guidelines (Lehman, 1998, p. 54). If you have any doubts about whether a use is fair use, it is always best to seek permission. How Do I Get Permission? How Can the osler essay contest Library Help? The UMUC Library will assist UMUC faculty in obtaining permission for copyright-protected materials for use in UMUC classes. The Library can place copies of copyrighted articles, readings, and short audio or video clips in the eReserves area of your online classroom.

See the eReserves FAQ for an overview of the process and How to business school Request eReserves for medical, instructions on submitting requests. To use materials outside of UMUC courses, you must obtain permission yourself. If you would like to request permission yourself, we have a sample letter you may use as a guide. The UMUC Library encourages its faculty and students to persuasive make use of osler contest Open Educational Resources (OERs) whenever possible. Open educational resources (OERs), according to an often-cited definition, are “teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others” (Atkins, Brown, and Hammond, 2007, p. Thesis Css Tutorial? 4). Because we work in osler essay, a collegial, sharing atmosphere in higher education, many creative individuals and institutions have made resources freely available on the Web so that others can use and adapt them in their classes. You may find that what you need for your classes is business school essays, readily available for use without copyright permission. See the osler essay contest Library’s guide to Open Educational Resources for more details about collections of learning objects that you may freely use, as well as additional information about how the open source movement affects us in higher education. In 2002 Congress passed the T.E.A.C.H.

Act (Technology, Education, and Copyright Harmonization Act) in in communication essay, an effort to make explicit how copyright works in online, distance education. Previously, when U.S. copyright law applied to the classroom, it applied only to face-to-face settings. While the T.E.A.C.H. Act gave educators some rights in the online, distance education environment corresponding to the rights enjoyed in the face-to-face classroom, the amount of material that may be used in online and distance education classrooms is contest, much more restricted. Moreover, there is a formidable list of conditions that educators must meet before they can use the thesis css tutorial T.E.A.C.H. Act as legal protection against copyright infringement claims. The University System of Texas offers a checklist with more information on the T.E.A.C.H. Act (Harper, 2002, para.

17). At the present time, however, the University of Maryland University College has not implemented the T.E.A.C.H. Act, so it cannot be used by contest UMUC faculty to justify use of copyrighted materials within UMUC classrooms. Copyright Crash Course - University of Texas Libraries Copyright and planner Fair Use Center - Stanford University Libraries Center for Media Social Impact: Fair Use, Free Speech Intellectual Property - American University. Association of College and medical contest Research Libraries. (2010). Css Tutorial? Information literacy competency standards for higher education . Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/standards/informationliteracycompetency.cfm. Atkins, D., Brown, J.S., and osler Hammond, A.L. (2007). A review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) movement: Achievements, challenges, and new opportunities . Retrieved from http://www.hewlett.org/uploads/files/Hewlett_OER_report.pdf.

Commerce, Energy, NASA, Defense Information (CENDI) Managers Group, Copyright Working Group. (2008). Help Online? Works created under a federal contract or grant. Frequently asked questions about medical, copyright issues: Issues affecting the U.S. government . Retrieved from business school, http://www.cendi.gov/publications/04-8copyright.pdf. Fishman, S. (2008). The copyright handbook: What every writer needs to know . Berkeley, CA: Nolo. Harper, G.K. (2002). The TEACH Act Checklist. The Copyright Crash Course . Retrieved from http://copyright.lib.utexas.edu/teachact.html#checklist. Lehman, B.A. (1998). The Conference on Fair Use: Final report to the Commissioner on the conclusion of the Conference on Fair Use.

Retrieved from http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/dcom/olia/confu/confurep.pdf. Loren, L.P. (2000). Medical Essay? The purpose of copyright. Open Spaces Quarterly, 2 (1). Retrieved from http://www.open-spaces.com/ NOLO. (2010). The 'fair use' rule: When use of copyrighted material is acceptable . Retrieved from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/article-30100.html. United States Copyright Office. (2008). Copyright basics . (Circular 1). Retrieved from http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ01.pdf. United States Copyright Office. (2009).

Reproduction of copyrighted works by educators and librarians . (Circular 21). Retrieved from by amy essays, http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ21.pdf. United States Copyright Office. (2010). Medical? Fair use . (Circular FL-102). Retrieved from http://www.copyright.gov/fls/fl102.html. 855-655-8682, opt. 6, x22020.

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