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Victorian Essayists Flashcards | Quizlet
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The Life and Times of Abraham Hayward, Q C Victorian Essayist 'One
Business studies Coursework - Study of a small established local business. Extracts from this document. Business Studies Controlled Assignment For my investigation of victorian essayist a small established local business, I decided to investigate RK News, which is a local business located on the busy new cross road. Essay Reference! The reason why I have selected this business is because the victorian location of the apartheid essay business has the essayist capabilities of maintaining a stable flow of customers from the common essay mistakes local community, the essayist large amount of passers-by as well as students from the kant have problem surrounding college and university. From observing the store fascia which is victorian located above the door, I found that the store sells various products such as tobacco, confectionery, alcohol, top-up cards, bus passes, ATM machine access, which from doing at other businesses I found that it was a service that none of the other nearby stores provided.
The store also has a banner outside that says cards for all occasions which tells me that they have a wide range of cards available for common purchase. For a small store, this is a wide range of products/services to essayist provide and things such as ATM access and various cards in the store area unique selling point. This is one of the competitive advantages of this business and I think that if the improvable areas are put into major development, this business could be more profitable and earn more revenue. . read more. Essay List! From those results, I can see that a large amount of people (50%) thought that the victorian customer service was satisfactory and a small amount of people thought that the customer service was good. The result also shows that a third of kant have a mind-body problem people thought of the victorian customer service as unsatisfactory. This tells me that there is some room for essay list improvement here. The reason why I asked this question is because I wanted to know exactly what it was that attracted people to this store; so that I could see if there were areas that could be improved such as the store lay out which from these results does not attract people currently. What I found was that the most selected option was The store is on the way to work/school this tells me that a lot of the store's income is from passing trade. I then used that information obtained from the questionnaires to essayist see what areas of improvement there were and I designed a questionnaire to find out what the store owner was doing to writer website utilise the potential of the store and victorian essayist if they had already noticed and/or worked on areas in which the store could improve.
These are the abigail in the questions that I asked him and his responses: Do you like the location of the business? . read more. * They should change the colour of the celling changed from victorian green to cream, to further improve the distribution of light in the store. This would help to lighten the mood of people that go to the store and think better of the store atmosphere. Documentclass! I think that this would be a substantial improvement but may be time consuming when redoing the floor. The store is quite small and because of this, I do not think that re-paining the roof will be an victorian, expensive development, whereas the floor could cost a greater amount. Essay Reference List! * They should also have a limit on the amount of students allowed in the store. From looking at the size of the victorian store, it would be most suitable for a limit of 6 students at a time. This would not only make the store less crowded and cramped but it would make the store easier to navigate and would help to apartheid essay discourage the shoplifting that they are experiencing problems with as the owner said in the interview. This would not cost anything to implement apart from a simple sign on the door and a member of staff to manage the flow of people.
I have made my improvements based on the information that I obtained through my various types of essayist research, and the points stated above are my final recommendations. Essay List! I think that the store overall will improve if these ideas are implemented and victorian be more welcoming to new customers. . read more. This student written piece of best documentclass work is essayist one of many that can be found in our GCSE Case Studies section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. bussiness-british airways coursework. This page can be made better by adding more flash animations so that it catches reader's attention. The search results bar is not very impressive as it gives most of the time, irrelevant results.
By including an A-Z index which would include all the reference sub-headings of the departments or any listings like BBC does on victorian, their website. * Customers can decide whether they like a website within two clicks, if they see a badly designed site with too much text or cannot find what they want they are likely to leave it very quickly. What the website will actually do is common essay help mistakes shown below. Attack to Iraq could cause fuel crisis The attack to Iraq could cause the increase of fuel prices, as we know Iraq is a big oil exporting country. Concorde The Concorde has been in commission for 25 years, and facing superannuate. manufactured by Ben Jerry's Homemade Holdings, Inc., headquartered in South Burlington, Vermont, United States, with the main factory in Waterbury, Vermont and victorian is owned by the conglomerate Unilever. Price: The average price range is between ?3 which is very cheap for why is in the crucible ice cream as it spouse to essayist be the. Best Documentclass! Tickets and Merchandise can be purchased on the website, and fans can also look at such things such as the club's history, it's league placement, and other club-related topics. Football program's are another vital part of marketing, as a lot of fans will purchase these on entry to the stadium on the night/day of a football game. This marketing report is going to look at victorian essayist the internal and external analysis of . These participants were randomly selected to eliminate bias. However, we tried to limit asking participants under the age of 16, as we felt they were too young to give us any valuable data. The conclusions deduced from the results were: Results: Figure 1 From the graph above it can clearly be seen that most people (56% of the people surveyed) * Technical skills to operate computer publishing, paint, drawing, animation programs, operate video cameras and sound equipment etc. Job Roles Marketing Executive - A Marketing Executive is expected to deal with product management with diverse elements of marketing.
Marketing Assistant - A Marketing Assistant provides administrative support, organise events, implement. The administration function at McDonalds deals with post, email and common essay keeping records of the business. Victorian! They set up meeting and make sure the application premise is clean and the security is still working. Administration at McDonalds is carried out by victorian a special administration department, which also looks after department. of abigail to blame crucible essay student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and essayist feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest?
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IB Maths Resources from British International School Phuket. This is the victorian essayist, British International School Phuket’s IB maths exploration (IA) page. This list is for SL and HL students – if you are doing a Maths Studies IA then go to this page instead. Be aware that this page gets a large amount of traffic from essay, IB students – do not simply copy articles. This will almost certainly be spotted by victorian, the IB moderators and could result in you failing your diploma. Use this resource like you would a good wiki – as a starting point and inspiration for writer website, your own personal investigation. Before choosing a topic you need to read this page which gives very important guidance from the IB. Not paying attention to this guidance from the IB is the victorian, biggest mistake that students make. It could easily mean the difference between coursework which gets 17/20 and one which gets 11/20. Best Thesis! That will probably cost you at essayist least 1 IB grade.
Do not skip this step! You may also enjoy taking part in reference list our school’s code breaking website. There are 8 levels of essayist coding difficulty – with each code giving you a password to access the next clue. There are Maths Murder Mysteries, Spy games and more. Solve all the clues in a level to make it onto the leaderboard.
The 2 hardest levels – Level 6 and Level 7 are particularly tough – are you good enough to essay reference list, crack them? The authors of the latest Pearson Mathematics SL and HL books have come up with 200 ideas for students doing their maths explorations. Essayist! I have supplemented these with some more possible areas for investigation. With a bit of ingenuity you can enrich even quite simple topics to bring in list a range of mathematical skills. 1) Modular arithmetic – This technique is used throughout Number Theory. For example, Mod 3 means the remainder when dividing by 3. 2) Goldbach’s conjecture: “Every even number greater than 2 can be expressed as the victorian essayist, sum of two primes.” One of the great unsolved problems in mathematics. 3) Probabilistic number theory. 4) Applications of complex numbers: The stunning graphics of Mandelbrot and apartheid essay, Julia Sets are generated by complex numbers. 5) Diophantine equations: These are polynomials which have integer solutions. Fermat’s Last Theorem is one of the most famous such equations.
6) Continued fractions: These are fractions which continue to infinity. Victorian! The great Indian mathematician Ramanujan discovered some amazing examples of these. 7) Patterns in Pascal’s triangle: There are a large number of patterns to discover – including the Fibonacci sequence. 8) Finding prime numbers: The search for how does kant problem, prime numbers and victorian, the twin prime conjecture are some of the most important problems in essay reference mathematics. There is a $1 million prize for victorian, solving the Riemann Hypothesis and $250,000 available for anyone who discovers a new, really big prime number. 9) Random numbers. 10) Pythagorean triples: A great introduction into why is abigail to blame in the, number theory – investigating the victorian, solutions of Pythagoras’ Theorem which are integers (eg.
3,4,5 triangle). 11) Mersenne primes: These are primes that can be written as 2^n -1. 12) Magic squares and apartheid essay, cubes: Investigate magic tricks that use mathematics. Why do magic squares work? 13) Loci and complex numbers. 14) Egyptian fractions: Egyptian fractions can only have a numerator of 1 – which leads to some interesting patterns. 2/3 could be written as 1/6 + 1/2. Can all fractions with a numerator of 2 be written as 2 Egyptian fractions? 15) Complex numbers and victorian, transformations. 16) Euler’s identity: An equation that has been voted the most beautiful equation of all time, Euler’s identity links together 5 of the most important numbers in apartheid essay mathematics. 17) Chinese remainder theorem.
This is a puzzle that was posed over 1500 years ago by a Chinese mathematician. It involves understanding the modulo operation. 18) Fermat’s last theorem: A problem that puzzled mathematicians for centuries – and one that has only recently been solved. 19) Natural logarithms of essayist complex numbers. 20) Twin primes problem: The question as to whether there are patterns in writer website the primes has fascinated mathematicians for victorian, centuries. In The! The twin prime conjecture states that there are infinitely many consecutive primes ( eg. 5 and essayist, 7 are consecutive primes). There has been a recent breakthrough in common application essay mistakes this problem.
21) Hypercomplex numbers. 22) Diophantine application: Cole numbers. 23) Perfect Numbers: Perfect numbers are the essayist, sum of their factors (apart from the last factor). ie 6 is have a mind-body problem, a perfect number because 1 + 2 + 3 = 6. 24) Euclidean algorithm for GCF. 25) Palindrome numbers: Palindrome numbers are the same backwards as forwards. 26) Fermat’s little theorem: If p is a prime number then a^p – a is a multiple of victorian essayist p. 27) Prime number sieves. 28) Recurrence expressions for phi (golden ratio): Phi appears with remarkable consistency in nature and writer website, appears to shape our understanding of beauty and symmetry. 29) The Riemann Hypothesis – one of the victorian essayist, greatest unsolved problems in mathematics – worth $1million to anyone who solves it (not for the faint hearted!)
30) Time travel to the future: Investigate how traveling close to the speed of light allows people to travel “forward” in time relative to someone on Earth. Why does the writer website, twin paradox work? 31) Graham’s Number – a number so big that thinking about it could literally collapse your brain into a black hole. 32) RSA code – the most important code in the world? How all our digital communications are kept safe through the properties of primes. 33) The Chinese Remainder Theorem: This is a method developed by a Chinese mathematician Sun Zi over 1500 years ago to solve a numerical puzzle. An interesting insight into the mathematical field of Number Theory.
34) Cesaro Summation: Does 1 – 1 + 1 – 1 … = 1/2?. A post which looks at the maths behind this particularly troublesome series. 35) Fermat’s Theorem on the sum of 2 squares – An example of how to use mathematical proof to solve problems in number theory. 36) Can we prove that 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 …. = -1/12 ? How strange things happen when we start to victorian, manipulate divergent series. 37) Mathematical proof and essay, paradox – a good opportunity to explore some methods of proof and to show how logical errors occur. 38) Friendly numbers, Solitary numbers, perfect numbers. Investigate what makes a number happy or sad, or sociable! Can you find the victorian, loop of infinite sadness? 39) Zeno’s Paradox – Achilles and writer website, the Tortoise – A look at victorian essayist the classic paradox from ancient Greece – the essay reference list, philosopher “proved” a runner could never catch a tortoise – no matter how fast he ran.
40) Stellar Numbers – This is an victorian essayist excellent example of a pattern sequence investigation. Choose your own pattern investigation for essay list, the exploration. 41) Arithmetic number puzzle – It could be interesting to victorian, do an exploration where you solve number problems – like this one. 1a) Non-Euclidean geometries: This allows us to common application mistakes, “break” the rules of essayist conventional geometry – for example, angles in a triangle no longer add up to 180 degrees. In some geometries triangles add up to more than 180 degrees, in others less than 180 degrees. 1b) The shape of the universe – non-Euclidean Geometry is at the heart of kant problem Einstein’s theories on General Relativity and essential to understanding the shape and behavior of the universe. 2) Hexaflexagons: These are origami style shapes that through folding can reveal extra faces. 3) Minimal surfaces and soap bubbles: Soap bubbles assume the minimum possible surface area to contain a given volume.
4) Tesseract – a 4D cube: How we can use maths to imagine higher dimensions. 5) Stacking cannon balls: An investigation into the patterns formed from stacking canon balls in victorian essayist different ways. 6) Mandelbrot set and best documentclass, fractal shapes: Explore the world of essayist infinitely generated pictures and fractional dimensions. 7) Sierpinksi triangle: a fractal design that continues forever. 8) Squaring the circle: This is a puzzle from ancient times – which was to find out whether a square could be created that had the same area as a given circle. Reference List! It is now used as a saying to represent something impossible. 9) Polyominoes: These are shapes made from squares.
The challenge is to see how many different shapes can be made with a given number of essayist squares – and how can they fit together? 10) Tangrams: Investigate how many different ways different size shapes can be fitted together. 11) Understanding the fourth dimension: How we can use mathematics to imagine (and test for) extra dimensions. 12) The Riemann Sphere – an exploration of some non-Euclidean geometry. Straight lines are not straight, parallel lines meet and angles in a triangle don’t add up to writer website, 180 degrees. 13) Graphically understanding complex roots – have you ever wondered what the complex root of a quadratic actually means graphically?
Find out! 14) Circular inversion – what does it mean to reflect in a circle? A great introduction to some of the victorian, ideas behind non-euclidean geometry. 15) Julia Sets and Mandelbrot Sets – We can use complex numbers to create beautiful patterns of infinitely repeating fractals. Find out how! 16) Graphing polygons investigation. Can we find a function that plots a square? Are there functions which plot any polygons? Use computer graphing to investigate. 17) Graphing Stewie from Family Guy. How to apartheid essay, use graphic software to make art from essayist, equations.
18) Hyperbolic geometry – how we can map the infinite hyperbolic plane onto common essay the unit circle, and victorian, how this inspired the art of Escher. 19) Elliptical Curves– how this class of curves have importance in solving Fermat’s Last Theorem and in cryptography. 20) The Coastline Paradox – how we can measure the how does kant problem, lengths of coastlines, and victorian, uses the idea of list fractals to arrive at fractional dimensions. 21) Projective geometry – the victorian essayist, development of geometric proofs based on points at infinity. Calculus/analysis and apartheid essay, functions. 1) The harmonic series: Investigate the relationship between fractions and music, or investigate whether this series converges. 2) Torus – solid of essayist revolution: A torus is writer website, a donut shape which introduces some interesting topological ideas. 3) Projectile motion: Studying the motion of projectiles like cannon balls is an victorian essayist essential part of the mathematics of war. You can also model everything from Angry Birds to to blame in the, stunt bike jumping.
A good use of essayist your calculus skills. 5) Fourier Transforms – the most important tool in essay list mathematics? Fourier transforms have an essential part to play in modern life – and are one of the victorian, keys to understanding the writer website, world around us. This mathematical equation has been described as the most important in essayist all of physics. Find out more! (This topic is kant have problem, only suitable for IB HL students). 6) Batman and Superman maths – how to essayist, use Wolfram Alpha to plot graphs of the best documentclass, Batman and Superman logo. 7) Explore the Si(x) function – a special function in calculus that can’t be integrated into victorian essayist, an elementary function. Statistics and modelling. 1) Traffic flow: How maths can model traffic on the roads. 2) Logistic function and constrained growth.
3) Benford’s Law – using statistics to writer website, catch criminals by making use of victorian essayist a surprising distribution. 4) Bad maths in apartheid essay court – how a misuse of statistics in the courtroom can lead to devastating miscarriages of justice. 5) The mathematics of victorian cons – how con artists use pyramid schemes to get rich quick. 6) Impact Earth – what would happen if an asteroid or meteorite hit the Earth? 7) Black Swan events – how usefully can mathematics predict small probability high impact events? 8) Modelling happiness – how understanding utility value can make you happier. 9) Does finger length predict mathematical ability? Investigate the surprising correlation between finger ratios and all sorts of abilities and traits. 10) Modelling epidemics/spread of a virus.
11) The Monty Hall problem – this video will show why statistics often lead you to unintuitive results. 12) Monte Carlo simulations. 14) Bayes’ theorem: How understanding probability is essential to writer website, our legal system. 15) Birthday paradox: The birthday paradox shows how intuitive ideas on probability can often be wrong. How many people need to be in a room for it to be at least 50% likely that two people will share the same birthday? Find out! 16) Are we living in victorian a computer simulation?
Look at the Bayesian logic behind the argument that we are living in a computer simulation. 17) Does sacking a football manager affect results? A chance to look at some statistics with surprising results. 18) Which times tables do students find most difficult? A good example of how to apartheid essay, conduct a statistical investigation in mathematics. 19) Introduction to victorian, Modelling.
This is a fantastic 70 page booklet explaining different modelling methods from Moody’s Mega Maths Challenge. 20) Modelling infectious diseases – how we can use mathematics to predict how diseases like measles will spread through a population. 21) Using Chi Squared to crack codes – Chi squared can be used to crack Vigenere codes which for hundreds of have a mind-body problem years were thought to be unbreakable. Unleash your inner spy! 22) Modelling Zombies – How do zombies spread? What is your best way of surviving the zombie apocalypse? Surprisingly maths can help! 23) Modelling music with sine waves – how we can understand different notes by sine waves of different frequencies. Listen to the sounds that different sine waves make. 24) Are you psychic? Use the binomial distribution to test your ESP abilities.
25) Reaction times – are you above or below average? Model your data using a normal distribution. 26) Modelling volcanoes – look at how the Poisson distribution can predict volcanic eruptions, and perhaps explore some more advanced statistical tests. 27) Could Trump win the victorian essayist, next election? How the normal distribution is used to apartheid essay, predict elections. 28) How to avoid a Troll – an example of victorian a problem solving based investigation. 29) The Gini Coefficient – How to writer website, model economic inequality.
30) Maths of Global Warming – Modeling Climate Change – Using Desmos to model the change in atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. 31) Modelling radioactive decay – the mathematics behind radioactivity decay, used extensively in science. 1) The prisoner’s dilemma: The use of essayist game theory in psychology and economics. 3) Gambler’s fallacy: A good chance to why is abigail crucible, investigate misconceptions in probability and probabilities in victorian gambling. Why does the house always win? 4) Bluffing in documentclass Poker: How probability and game theory can be used to explore the the best strategies for bluffing in poker. 5) Knight’s tour in victorian essayist chess: This chess puzzle asks how many moves a knight must make to visit all squares on a chess board. 6) Billiards and why is in the essay, snooker. 7) Zero sum games. 8) How to “Solve” Noughts and Crossess (Tic Tac Toe) – using game theory.
This topics provides a fascinating introduction to both combinatorial Game Theory and essayist, Group Theory. 9) Maths and football – Do managerial sackings really lead to documentclass thesis, an improvement in results? We can analyse the data to find out. Also look at victorian essayist the finances behind Premier league teams. 10) Is there a correlation between Premier League wages and apartheid essay, league position? Also look at how the Championship compares to the Premier League.
11) The One Time Pad – an uncrackable code? Explore the maths behind code making and victorian essayist, breaking. 12) How to win at Rock Paper Scissors. Look at some of the maths (and psychology behind winning this game. 13) The Watson Selection Task – a puzzle which tests logical reasoning. Essay! Are maths students better than history students? 2) Steiner problem. 3) Chinese postman problem – This is victorian essayist, a problem from writer website, graph theory – how can a postman deliver letters to every house on his streets in the shortest time possible?
4) Travelling salesman problem. 5) Konigsberg bridge problem: The use of networks to solve problems. Essayist! This particular problem was solved by Euler. 6) Handshake problem: With n people in writer website a room, how many handshakes are required so that everyone shakes hands with everyone else? 7) Mobius strip: An amazing shape which is victorian, a loop with only 1 side and 1 edge. 9) Logic and abigail to blame essay, sets. 10) Codes and ciphers: ISBN codes and credit card codes are just some examples of how codes are essential to modern life. Maths can be used to both make these codes and break them. 11) Zeno’s paradox of Achilles and victorian essayist, the tortoise: How can a running Achilles ever catch the tortoise if in application the time taken to halve the distance, the tortoise has moved yet further away? 12) Four colour map theorem – a puzzle that requires that a map can be coloured in so that every neighbouring country is in a different colour.
What is the minimum number of colours needed for any map? 13) Telephone Numbers – these are numbers with special properties which grow very large very quickly. Essayist! This topic links to graph theory. 14)The Poincare Conjecture and Grigori Perelman – Learn about the thesis, reclusive Russian mathematician who turned down $1 million for solving one of the world’s most difficult maths problems. 1) The Monkey and essayist, the Hunter – How to Shoot a Monkey – Using Newtonian mathematics to decide where to aim when shooting a monkey in best documentclass thesis a tree. 2) How to Design a Parachute – looking at the physics behind parachute design to ensure a safe landing! 3) Galileo: Throwing cannonballs off The Leaning Tower of essayist Pisa – Recreating Galileo’s classic experiment, and using maths to understand the surprising result.
4) Rocket Science and writer website, Lagrange Points – how clever mathematics is used to keep satellites in just the right place. 5) Fourier Transforms – the most important tool in mathematics? – An essential component of JPEG, DNA analysis, WIFI signals, MRI scans, guitar amps – find out about the maths behind these essential technologies. 6) Bullet projectile motion experiment – using Tracker software to model the victorian, motion of a bullet. 7) Quantum Mechanics – a statistical universe? Look at the inherent probabilistic nature of the universe with some quantum mechanics. 1) Radiocarbon dating – understanding radioactive decay allows scientists and historians to application help, accurately work out something’s age – whether it be from thousands or even millions of victorian years ago. 2) Gravity, orbits and escape velocity – Escape velocity is the speed required to break free from a body’s gravitational pull. Essential knowledge for future astronauts. 3) Mathematical methods in economics – maths is essential in both business and economics – explore some economics based maths problems.
4) Genetics – Look at the mathematics behind genetic inheritance and natural selection. 5) Elliptical orbits – Planets and comets have elliptical orbits as they are influenced by the gravitational pull of other bodies in apartheid essay space. Victorian! Investigate some rocket science! 6) Logarithmic scales – Decibel, Richter, etc. are examples of log scales – investigate how these scales are used and what they mean. 7) Fibonacci sequence and how does kant a mind-body problem, spirals in nature – There are lots of examples of the victorian, Fibonacci sequence in real life – from pine cones to petals to modelling populations and the stock market. 8) Change in a person’s BMI over time – There are lots of examples of BMI stats investigations online – see if you can think of an interesting twist. 9) Designing bridges – Mathematics is essential for engineers such as bridge builders – investigate how to design structures that carry weight without collapse.
11) Flatland by Edwin Abbott – This famous book helps understand how to imagine extra dimension. You can watch a short video on it here. 12) Towers of Hanoi puzzle – This famous puzzle requires logic and patience. Can you find the pattern behind it? 13) Different number systems – Learn how to add, subtract, multiply and divide in Binary. Investigate how binary is used – link to codes and writer website, computing. 14) Methods for victorian, solving differential equations – Differential equations are amazingly powerful at modelling real life – from population growth to common essay, to pendulum motion. Investigate how to solve them. 16) Hyperbolic functions – These are linked to victorian, the normal trigonometric functions but with notable differences.
They are useful for modelling more complex shapes. 17) Medical data mining – Explore the use and misuse of best thesis statistics in medicine and essayist, science. Thanks for the list, was very useful for writer website, me (currently choosing a topic for the math exploration). extremely helpful as my teacher is super vague! love this! Most of these are excellent and I love the majority (CRT is the Way, the Truth, and the Light!) but these range from quite easy (modular arithmetic, at least at the basic level) to impossibly hard (GRH? Goldbach?). I think the easier ones are more suitable; I find it hard to imagine a good paper on GRH or Goldbach without a background in essayist complex analysis or analytic number theory, respectively: these topics are just too hard for high schoolers (and too hard for application essay help mistakes, everyone else probably also). On the other hand, I’d quite enjoy reading (or writing?) an expository paper on mods, especially since NT is such a neglected topic in schools. Also, what is with “Does finger length predict mathematical ability?”?
Some of the Stats topics seem quite bizarre and wholly unmathematical in nature. This is so helpful! Really helpful, I had no idea on even where to start. Essayist! Thank you!
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to essayist, know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and writer website, trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the victorian, resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and essay list, tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of victorian your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job.
For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the common essay, accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out victorian, depending on abigail to blame the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only victorian essayist, sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document.
In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of reference your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out victorian essayist, these five other marketing tricks to documentclass, get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is essayist, when you’re making a huge career change and writer website, need to victorian, explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the reference, rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Victorian! Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding.
The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the reference list, bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to victorian essayist, force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the kant have problem, same story in essayist less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to in the crucible essay, see how you can organize your resume to fit more in victorian essayist less space. Can’t figure out how to kant have, tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work?
Instead of victorian essayist trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and to blame in the, then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to essayist, stand out in a minute. Best! But the victorian essayist, most basic principle of good resume formatting and documentclass thesis, design? Keep it simple. Victorian! Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by abigail to blame essay using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Victorian Essayist! You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent.
Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. Apartheid Essay! That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the victorian essayist, sea of best Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and essayist, whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to essay list, put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent.
You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to victorian, make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the common help mistakes, hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for victorian prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. How Does Have Problem! This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.
Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of essayist your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to essay reference list, importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to essayist, the one you’re applying to). 14. Essay! No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the essayist, bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on why is abigail to blame crucible essay your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section.
No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out essayist, these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to apartheid essay, throw in essayist tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to list, be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. Victorian! How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in application essay mistakes what the benefit was to your boss or your company.
By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. Victorian! If you’re not sure how to apartheid essay, explain your impact, check out victorian essayist, these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about best documentclass thesis, how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20.
Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only victorian, put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in apartheid essay a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of victorian essayist better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is writer website, this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems.
Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and victorian essayist, spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of apartheid essay jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25.
Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Essayist! Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. How Does! The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in victorian the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education.
Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the writer website, skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Victorian Essayist! Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out writer website, one of those sections and essayist, listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on how does kant have problem a music company? Definitely include it.
But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about victorian essayist, it. 32. Beware of best Interests That Could Be Controversial. Victorian Essayist! Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Essay! Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns.
Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Victorian! Zhang explains here how to writer website, weigh the decision of whether to essayist, include them or not. How Does A Mind-body Problem! Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to victorian essayist, include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations.
If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for apartheid essay only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. Essayist! According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the reference list, number of essayist years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to apartheid essay, downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Essayist! Re-entering the essay list, workforce after a long hiatus? This is the essayist, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at apartheid essay, the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to essayist, include part-time or volunteer work. Common Essay! See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Victorian Essayist! Don’t try to creatively fill in best documentclass gaps on your resume.
For example, if you took time out of the victorian, workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of writer website laundry” (we’ve seen it). Essayist! While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Reference! Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is victorian, interested in you, he or she will ask you for thesis references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Victorian! It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and apartheid essay, grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at victorian essayist, it for kant a mind-body you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. Essayist! That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of apartheid essay “Resume.” It’s one less step the essayist, hiring manager has to take.
Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Best Thesis! Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in victorian tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is apartheid essay, passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Victorian! Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and how does kant problem, led the company’s branded content team. Essayist! If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com.
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Essay on essayist Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Reference? Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Victorian? Types 9. Theories 10. How Does Have A Mind-body? Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India.
Essay on the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison d’etre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on essayist the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to why is abigail, Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on FDI Trends in India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the increase in the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an victorian integral part of a firm’s strategy to expand international business. FDI is the largest source of external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of common help mistakes, FDI amounts to about one-third of the victorian, developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of host economies.
It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is estimated that the sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of list, world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthening infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and political affairs. Victorian Essayist? Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and apartheid essay, exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to victorian, other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis.
ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is more likely to how does kant have problem, be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to essayist, cater to foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of international business expansion. Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to to blame in the crucible essay, get into manufacturing operations overseas.
In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. It is the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. Victorian Essayist? FDI occurs when an investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it. It is the writer website, management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and essayist, other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of why is abigail to blame in the crucible, FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries.
FDI is defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to essayist, be acquired in the foreign firm. Kant Problem? The ‘lasting interest’ implies the victorian essayist, existence of mistakes, a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is exerted by victorian essayist, the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the how does kant have problem, ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. Victorian Essayist? The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.
It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at why is to blame in the essay, international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by essayist, individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in the foreign business entity is not significant enough to writer website, exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm. High rate of returns and mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of victorian, FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is reference, part of the capital account of balance of victorian essayist, payment (BoP) statistics.
It is best, important to understand why a firm takes a decision to essayist, invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to writer website, cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the firm is exposed to greater risks. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of victorian, transportation between the production facilities and apartheid essay, geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of transportation have to be incurred for marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances. For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in victorian, foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for application essay low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by way of victorian, licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the host country and lack of adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of common essay help mistakes, its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder.
It took several years for Kellogg’s to understand the centrality of its traditional food in India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast. In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers’ preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and victorian, exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of problem, benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability.
This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI increase domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Victorian? Under such situations, the list, FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports.
Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and essayist, select the apartheid essay, most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in victorian, a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and why is essay, financial capital employed for victorian essayist setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is thesis, highly significant for victorian essayist the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of reference, prime importance while making an victorian investment decision. A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs:
The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. Abigail To Blame In The Essay? influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions. In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by victorian essayist, trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from writer website developing economies. China is victorian essayist, considered the most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per cent (Fig. How Does Kant? 12.1).
India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and essayist, Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to why is in the essay, move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in developing countries is taking the essayist, lead in best thesis, global FDI recovery. As indicated in victorian essayist, Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.
Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in mistakes, India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is victorian, not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and financial power. Essay Reference List? In some sectors, this is leading to victorian, MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to apartheid essay, operate at a large scale and victorian, invest heavily in marketing and advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and best thesis, makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and victorian, marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect.
As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and application essay help mistakes, software for victorian essayist the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the best documentclass, host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.
Major types of victorian, FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by list, foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in essayist, India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of Types of how does kant a mind-body problem, Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Essayist? Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country. Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.
A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in apartheid essay, industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the victorian essayist, multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of best, production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing. Victorian? The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on apartheid essay the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in victorian essayist, the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction).
Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by how does, backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Essayist? Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of problem, forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in victorian, the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in how does kant have, countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of raw material.
ii. Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is victorian, favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time. However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for writer website investing in victorian essayist, developing countries.
Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is apartheid essay, also preferred for essayist production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per best cent of the world’s phosphate resources. MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and victorian, growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets.
Investing in essay reference list, other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and essayist, overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii. Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.
A firm may strategically opt for reference list efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of victorian essayist, efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services.
iv. Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and documentclass thesis, clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is essayist, termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of abigail to blame in the crucible essay, Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is victorian essayist, influenced by: i. Documentclass Thesis? Institutional factors. ii.
Cultural factors. iii. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in victorian, capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by application essay mistakes, intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in victorian essayist, new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to thesis, generate economic benefits.
In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for victorian acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of help mistakes, investment among firms worldwide in order to victorian essayist, enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of kant have, FDI.
However, an victorian essayist MNE has to make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of best thesis, target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to victorian, US$25.63 billion in abigail to blame essay, 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in victorian, 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the writer website, outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by 662 per victorian essayist cent from why is in the essay US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and victorian essayist, Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).
The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of documentclass, horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the essayist, attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the target firm’s resistance.
Investment by foreign firms in documentclass thesis, the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of victorian, FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. Why Is In The Essay? To achieve cost efficiencies by victorian essayist, way of taking advantage of availability of raw material inputs and best, manpower at cheaper costs. Savings in victorian essayist, costs of logistics due to reference, proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently.
iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons. Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. Victorian? To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of apartheid essay, Strategic Modes: In response to victorian, trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports.
It is aimed to serve the target market and how does kant have a mind-body problem, its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for victorian essayist export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firm’s cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the documentclass, target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in victorian, attracting such FDI. Greenfield investment is often the abigail in the, mode of victorian essayist, entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors’ home country.
The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to common, explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and victorian essayist, ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to why is abigail in the crucible essay, be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition?
Whether the investment is essayist, first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize? In view of various modes of reference, international business expansion, the firm has to select the best suited entry mode.
Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in victorian essayist, the rates of return on capital across countries. Capital is likely to be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on how does kant have a mind-body the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term.
A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the essayist, investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Government policies, including import restrictions and essay reference list, quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and government’s participation in essayist, trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a country’s industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and best thesis, incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.
Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by essayist, direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of apartheid essay, exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of FDI to cater to essayist, the market.
This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and kant have, the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to essayist, access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of documentclass, scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in essayist, order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.
Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Common Application Essay Help Mistakes? Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. Victorian Essayist? The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to how does, invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only victorian, through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is writer website, also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and victorian essayist, ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to have a mind-body problem, other countries too.
A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of essayist, a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of abigail to blame in the crucible, innovation even though the cost of production in other countries may be lower. Victorian Essayist? Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the common application help, innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations.
As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into victorian essayist the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is essay list, valid for both trade and victorian essayist, investment and why is in the essay, provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. Essayist? The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production. However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon why is crucible, the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities.
The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of victorian, three factors as discussed here. For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by apartheid essay, its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the victorian essayist, firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Common Application Help? Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and victorian, marketing skills. ii.
Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversification of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and thesis, other inputs. Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to essayist, incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the best documentclass thesis, host country’s market conditions.
iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of essayist, operation and application, communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is essayist, not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms. Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of raw materials and essay reference list, other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of victorian essayist, communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and application, the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and essayist, the stability of the government.
An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors. ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by apartheid essay, placing entry barriers to victorian, its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. Common Application? To protect itself against market uncertainties.
Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to victorian essayist, natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and a mind-body, supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in victorian, creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and common essay, financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.
MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and essayist, after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and common application help, horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into victorian essayist unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the selection of best documentclass, country location for investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the essayist, mode of documentclass thesis, international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in essayist, India.
Companies wishing to capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in essay reference list, order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and essayist, contracting. The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of FDI.
If the investment is made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to common mistakes, US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow’ to victorian, Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per how does kant have cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in victorian, 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).
The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China. While developed countries remain the major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in application essay mistakes, world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of victorian essayist, foreign investment in order to writer website, achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in essayist, developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to 8 per cent for the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output. There had been considerable debate across the world to reduce barriers to application, cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and essayist, subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries.
However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the essay, US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004. Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to victorian essayist, this trend. Apartheid Essay? The services sector accounted for three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in victorian essayist, the world.
However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to best documentclass, increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by victorian, 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in reference, 2005. China, India, and essayist, the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to application essay, creation of oligopolistic world, especially in victorian essayist, case of strategic industries. iii. MAs severely affects survival of documentclass thesis, indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through:
The foreign direct investor’s purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of essayist, funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to how does kant have a mind-body, the direct investor. Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Victorian? Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period.
The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per writer website cent of worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is victorian, a measure of the extent to to blame essay, which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country.
A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on victorian factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and technologies, to opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium. The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia.
However, it worsened in best thesis, developed countries compared to victorian essayist, 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in essay list, 2005 but declined later to 113th in victorian essayist, 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of writer website, economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country.
FDI i = The FDI outflows in victorian essayist, the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to apartheid essay, information, financial or natural resources, and essayist, size and essay, network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in victorian essayist, 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of structure variables comprising the essay, index.
It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of 0-1. It is the un-weighted average of victorian, scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. Reference? The rate of growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Victorian? Commercial energy use per to blame in the crucible capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in victorian essayist, gross national income.
g. The share of tertiary students in the population. i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of writer website, parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the victorian essayist, US, Singapore, the common application essay help, UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and victorian, Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of why is in the crucible essay, FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by essayist, the FDI potential index with those of reference, FDI performance index gives an victorian essayist indication of how each country performs against its potential. Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance.
Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in the category of under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.
The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to common application, continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to victorian essayist, augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of documentclass thesis, FDI depends on many conditions. Victorian? However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and best thesis, extent of essayist, these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the how does kant have, regulatory framework, within which the victorian, investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:
First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of best documentclass thesis, sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of victorian essayist, national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at the level of industries and clusters, and the marketing of regions and clusters with the aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for writer website FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to victorian essayist, FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization.
e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from in the that governing the victorian essayist, rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits.
c. Credit guarantees. iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to best documentclass, government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights.
v. Victorian Essayist? Performance requirements: a. Writer Website? Protection from victorian essayist import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer. f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and the political economy of writer website, dispensing patronage.
Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the victorian, basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the apartheid essay, following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and victorian essayist, thus difference in incentive, in all the six countries.
iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in essay mistakes, China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by essayist, the sales orientation of the why is to blame in the, foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the victorian essayist, investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of essay mistakes, FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI):
The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and opportunities in India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the victorian essayist, investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in reference, a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s.
The Indian government promotes FDI so as to victorian essayist, fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in writer website, the development of essayist, infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy. iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector.
v. Business of chit fund and writer website, Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Essayist? Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment. FDI up to common, 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.
Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the victorian, automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and apartheid essay, periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Victorian Essayist? Cable network FDI and apartheid essay, FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route.
iii. Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Victorian? Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.
FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per kant a mind-body problem cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per victorian cent with prior government approval. ii. Documentclass? Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and victorian, FII under the automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Best? Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.
b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per cent equity in victorian, favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and reference, beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.
v. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per victorian cent. viii.
Up-linking of a non-news and have a mind-body problem, current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Essayist? Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per why is to blame cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors. ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals.
(b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and essayist, rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture.
(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and writer website, formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for victorian essayist marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Common Essay? Special Economic Zones and essayist, Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks. iii.
Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.
i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2. It increased from US$4029 million in writer website, 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in essayist, 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in writer website, 2007-08.
The equity capital accounted for victorian 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in have a mind-body problem, India, as shown in essayist, Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the how does have a mind-body problem, top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. Essayist? 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and common help, others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest.
Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions. Wal-Mart, through its buying office in victorian, Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and writer website, planned to victorian essayist, increase this to apartheid essay, US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Essayist? Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in essay reference list, China. iii.
It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to essayist, less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.
It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the application essay help mistakes, standards and victorian essayist, services provided by super markets. ii.
The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in the retail market. iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.
Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii. Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. Application Help? The government of India opened up FDI up to essayist, 51 per cent in retail trade to ‘single brand products’ with effect from writer website 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Essayist? Opening up of the help, retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.
A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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